11 Emissions Past & Present
Most greenhouse gases have been, and are, emitted to meet the
needs of modern industrial societies.
12 Fossil Fuels
The emission of greenhouse gases from the burning of fossil fuels
is the major cause of climate change.
13 Methane & Other Gases
A range of greenhouse gases contribute to climate change.
International trade and travel, and dependence on motor vehicles
make transport a major source of greenhouse gas emissions.
Agriculture is a major source of emissions, and vital for economic
welfare in many countries.
16 The Carbon Balance
Changes in stored carbon are contributing to climate change.
PART 4 EXPECTED CONSEQUENCES
17 Disrupted Ecosystems
Many species and ecosystems may not be able to adapt to new
climatic conditions and stresses.
18 Water Security
Water scarcity has already become a major stress in some regions.
Climate change may raise the stress level.
19 Food Security
Climate change threatens future agricultural development in some
regions, and is benefiting others.
20 Threats to Health
The recent increase in the number of victims, and the economic
costs of weather-related health effects may be a sign of the future.
21 Rising Sea Levels
Thermal expansion of oceans and melting ice will lead to a
substantial rise in sea level, threatening many coastal communities.
22 Cities at Risk
The combined impact of changes in the climate is falling
particularly hard on rapidly growing cities.
23 Cultural Losses
Climate change is threatening sites that represent the world’s
cultural and historical heritage.
PART 5 RESPONDING TO CHANGE
24 Urgent Action to Adapt
As climate change becomes more marked, the need for adaptation
will be ever greater, and more difficult.
25 Building Capacity to Adapt
There is a need to develop effective strategies and actions, and to
support efforts being made at all levels.
26 City Responses
Cities around the world are taking action to reduce their emissions.
27 Renewable Energy
Renewable energy sources could be the key to economically and
socially sustainable societies.
28 Low Carbon Futures
Economic growth needs to be achieved with lower greenhouse gas
emissions, especially in developing countries.
29 Counting Carbon
Accurate accounting of carbon and greenhouse gas emissions is
PART 6 INTERNATIONAL POLICY & ACTION
30 International Action
Most countries have acknowledged the problem of climate change
by signing the Convention on Climate Change.
31 Meeting Kyoto Targets
Not quite half of Annex I countries are close to meeting their Kyoto
commitments. And the agreed targets fall short of what is needed.
32 Looking Beyond Kyoto
Negotiations are continuing in the search for a suitable
international response in a post-Kyoto world.
33 Trading Carbon Credits
Trading carbon credits encourages investment and shares the
burden of reducing emissions.
34 Financing the Response
Finance for responding to climate change has improved
dramatically but is still far from what is required.
PART 7 COMMITTING TO SOLUTIONS
35 Personal Action
People all over the world are taking measures to reduce the
greenhouse gases emitted as a result of the way they live.
36 Public Action
The policies, practices, and investments of governments,
businesses, and civic organizations will have the greatest impact
on our future.
PART 8 CLIMATE CHANGE DATA
Sources & Notes