Many indigenous American languages face imminent extinction, and the dictionary, often the only written documentation of these languages, stands as a powerful tool in preserving them. These essays, written by leading scholars in Native American language studies, provide a comprehensive picture of the theory and practice of Native American lexicography. The contributors discuss the technical, social, and personal challenges involved with the complex task of creating a dictionary of a Native American language. The book is also the first of its kind to address both standard and new issues surrounding the challenging task of transforming oral languages in general into written dictionaries. Making Dictionaries will be an invaluable source for those involved with all aspects of documenting and understanding endangered languages and for the increasing number of native communities engaged in language reclamation and preservation efforts.
I. FORM AND MEANING IN THE DICTIONARY
1. Theoretical and Universal Implications of Certain Verbal Entries in Dictionaries of
the Misumalpa Languages
Ken Hale and Danilo Salamanca
2. Morphology in Cherokee Lexicography: The Cherokee-English Dictionary
William Pulte and Durbin Feeling
3. Lexical Fuctions as a Heuristic for Huichol
Joseph E. Grimes
4. Entries for Verbs in American Indian Language Lexicography
5. Multiple Assertions, Grammatical Constructions, Lexical Pragmatics, and the Eastern Ojibwa-Chippewa-Ottowa Dictionary
Richard A. Rhodes
II. ROLE OF THE DICTIONARY IN INDIGENOUS COMMUNITIES
6. Issues of Standardization and Community in Aboriginal Language Lexicography
Keren Rice and Leslie Saxon
7. A Dictionary for Whom? Tensions between Academic and Nonacademic Functions of Bilingual Dictionaries
Leanne Hinton and William F. Weigel
8. Language Renewal and the Technologies of Literacy and Postliteracy: Reflections from Western Mono
Paul V. Kroskrity
III. TECHNOLOGY AND DICTIONARY DESIGN
9. An Interactive Dictionary and Text Corpus for Sixteenth- and Seventeenth-Century Nahuatl
10. What's in a Word? The Whys and What Fors of a Nahuatl Dictionary
Jonathan D. Amith
11. The Comparative Siouan Dictionary
David S. Rood and John E. Koontz
IV. SPECIFIC PROJECTS AND PERSONAL ACCOUNTS
12. Writing a Nez Perce Dictionary
13. On Publishing the Hopi Dictionary
Kenneth C. Hill
14. Writing a User-Friendly Dictionary
Catherine A. Callaghan
15. The NAPUS (Native American Placenames of the United States) Project: Principles and Problems
16. Alonso de Molina as Lexicographer
Mary L. Clayton and R. Joe Campbell
List of Contributors
William Frawley is Dean of the Columbian College of Arts and Science at George Washington University, where he is also Professor of Anthropology and Psychology. Prior to that he was Professor and Chair in the Department of Linguistics and Director of Cognitive Science at the University of Delaware, where he was also Faculty Director for Academic Programs and Planning and Director of the University's Office of Undergraduate Studies. His previous books include Vygotsky and Cognitive Science: Language and the Unification of the Social and Computational Mind (1997). Kenneth Hill is Research Associate in the Bureau of Applied Research in Anthropology and in the Department of Linguistics at the University of Arizona. His previous publications include Hopi Dictionary/HoÏikwa Lavytutuveni: A Hopi-English Dictionary of the Third Mesa Dialect (1998), for which he was editor-in-chief. Pamela Munro is Professor of Linguistics at the University of California, Los Angeles. She is coauthor of Chickasaw: An Analytic Dictionary (1994), among other publications.
“For linguists engaged in language documentation, as well as students planning to work in that area, this collection offers an instructive and stimulating diversity of experiences and perspectives, and will appeal, to anyone interested in linguists' firsthand accounts of language documentation.”—D. R. Parks, Indiana University - Bloomington Choice: Current Reviews For Academic Libraries
List of Contributors William Frawley (Ph.D. Northwestern, 1979) is Faculty Director for Academic Programs and Planning at the University of Delaware, where he has been Chair of the Department of Linguistics and Director of Cognitive Science. He has published twelve books and more than fifty papers on language and cognitive science. His books include Linguistic Semantics (Erlbaum, 1992) and Vygotsky and Cognitive Science (Harvard, 1998). He is currently Editor in Chief of the second edition of the Oxford International Encyclopedia of Linguistics and is also on the Editorial Advisory Board for Oxford American Dictionaries. He has been working on a variety of projects in medical informatics for modeling emotional processing and developing computerized aids for the treatment of affective disorders; his most recent paper is on the computational structure of language disorders, which will appear as a target article with continuing commentary in Computational Intelligence.
Kenneth C. Hill (PhD, UCLA) was a faculty member at the University of Michigan 1965-1985 and Chairman of the Department of Linguistics 1977-1982. He was the director of the Hopi Dictionary Project, 1985-1988, at the University of Arizona. Major publications include Speaking Mexicano (with Jane H. Hill) and the Hopi Dictionary/Hopi`ikwa Lava`ytutuveni (editor-in-chief). His research is in Uto-Aztecan linguistics.
Pamela Munro, professor of linguistics at UCLA, received her Ph.D. from the University of California at San Diego. She has done fieldwork and published on a number of American Indian and indigenous American languages (especially from the Yuman, Uto-Aztecan, Muskogean, and Zapotecan families), as well as on the Wolof language of Senegal and UCLA undergraduate slang.
Kenneth Hale obtained his masters and his doctorate at Indiana University, in the 1950s, with theses on Navajo and O'odham (Papago). He has taught linguistics in the Anthropology Departments at the University of Illinois and Arizona, and since 1967, he has been teaching and doing research in the Department of Linguistics and Philosophy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. His primary research has been on the syntax, morphology, and lexical structures of the Pama-Nyungan languages of Australia, the Uto-Aztecan and Athabaskan languages of the Southwest, and the Misumalpan languages of Nicaragua and Honduras. He has been interested since 1964 in working in support of the principle that the study of Native American languages will mature best and grow as a science when native speakers of the languages involved are enabled to assume career positions in the discipline of linguistics. He has participated in the educational programs of the American Indian Languages Development Institute (AILDI) and the Navajo Language Academy (NLA).
Danilo Salamanca obtained his masters in Linguistics at the University of Sorbonne Nouvelle (Paris III), his D.E.A at the University of Vincennes (Paris VIII) and his doctorate at MIT, with a thesis on the grammar of Miskito, prepared under the supervision of Ken Hale. He contributed to the creation and development of the Centro de Investigación y Documentación de la Costa Atlántica (CIDCA) of Nicaragua, a research institution specializing in indigenous matters and worked there from 1981 to 1995. He has contributed, both in Nicaragua and, since 1996, in Honduras, where he has worked for the Secretary of Education as consultant on the foundation and advancement of bilingual education programs for the Miskito people. He is the author of Gramática Escolar del Miskito and Diccionario Miskito (2000).
William Pulte received his BA (1964) and MA (1966) in Spanish from North Texas State University (now University of North Texas) and his Ph.D. (1971) in linguistics from the University of Texas at Austin. He worked for the Cherokee Bilingual Education Program, Tahlequah, Oklahoma from 1971-73 and was Project Director from1972-73. He was Assistant Professor of Anthropology at Southern Methodist University from 1973-78 and has been Associate Professor there since 1978. He has also been Director of the Teacher Training Programs in Bilingual Education since 1976. He has received a number of grants for teacher training projects in bilingual education from the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Bilingual Education and Minority Languages Affairs. His research is on Cherokee and bilingual education.
Durbin Feeling received the Associate of Arts degree from Bacone College in 1966, the BA in Journalism from Northeastern State University at Tahlequah, Oklahoma in 1979, and the MA from the University of California. He served as Cherokee Language Specialist for the Cherokee Bilingual Education Program at Tahlequah from 1973-75; as news editor for the Cherokee Nation Communication Center from 1975-6; as Director of Adult Education Programs for the Cherokee Nation from 1976-79; as Cherokee Language Specialist for the Cherokee Nation, 1984-87; as a radio news broadcaster in Cherokee, KGCR Radio, Pryor Ok 1986-87; and as Tribal Linguist for the Cherokee Nation from 1992-99. Feeling has taught Cherokee at the University of Tulsa , and at Rogers State University. His major publications include the Cherokee-English Dictionary (1975); An Outline of Cherokee Grammar (with William Pulte) (1975); "The Use of Cherokee in Christian Religious Services," in Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Native American Language Issues Institute (1987). He is the author of a large number of curriculum materials.
Joseph Grimes received the B.A. from Wheaton College (Illinois) in 1950, and the M.A. and Ph.D. in linguistics from Cornell University in 1958 and 1960. He has been a member of the Summer Institute of Linguistics since 1950, specializing in Huichol of Mexico from 1952 to 1967 and in Hawaii Pidgin from 1990 to the present. He was Consulting Editor of the Ethnologue from 1972 to 2000, designing the computer software to convert the database into a book. From 1967 to 2000 he was Associate Professor and Professor of linguistics at Cornell University, where he did research on discourse and lexical theory and set up and directed the phonetics laboratory for its first ten years. He has served on the Executive Committee of the Linguistic Society of America, and was its representative on the Consortium of Social Science Associations for several years, serving as President of the Consortium from 1990 to 1992.
Richard Rhodes is an Associate Professor of Linguistics at the University of California, Berkeley. He has an abiding interest in endangered languages. His primary fieldwork is on Ojibwe, which he has been studying for nearly thirty years, but he has also worked with speakers of MÈtchif, a mixed language of the Canadian plains, and is currently part of a language documentation project in Mesoamerica where he is working on a dictionary of the Mexican language, Sayula Popoluca.
Keren Rice is a Professor in the Department of Linguistics at the University of Toronto, where she is also Director of the Aboriginal Studies Program. She is the author of A Grammar of Slave and Morpheme Order and Semantic Scope: Word Formation in the Athapaskan Verb.
Leslie Saxon is associate professor of linguistics at the University of Victoria, Victoria, Canada and has also been affiliated with the Dogrib Community Services Board, Rae-Edzo, Northwest Territories, Canada. With the help of an advisory group, she and Mary Siemens edited a Dogrib dictionary (1996) for use in the Dogrib schools and communities.
Leanne Hinton is a professor of linguistics at the University of California at Berkeley and the director of the Survey of California and Other Indian Languages. She has written or edited eight books and over a hundred articles. Her main field is American Indian languages, within which she has specialized in language and music, sociolinguistics, historical linguistics, and, over the last ten years or so, language revitalization. She has written a community-oriented dictionary for the Havasupai language, assisted in the development of a dictionary for Kumeyaay (Northern Diegueqo), and served as an advisor for several other community-based dictionaries.
William Weigel is a Ph.D. candidate in linguistics at the University of California at Berkeley. Most of his research has focused on language shift and language obsolescence, especially in connection with the Yokuts language family.
Paul V. Kroskrity is currently Professor of Anthropology and Chair, Interdepartmental Program in American Indian Studies, UCLA. He received his Ph.D. in Anthropology from Indiana University. He is a specialist in Linguistic Anthropology with an emphasis on Native American Languages and Cultures. He has conducted long-term fieldwork with two different Native American groups. From 1973 until1993, he conducted research with the Arizona Tewa who reside on First Mesa of the Hopi Reservation, in Northeastern Arizona, and since 1980 he has worked with members of the Mono Indian communities of North Fork and Auberry in Central California. He has published many books and articles, including Language, History, and Identity: Ethnolinguistic Studies of the Arizona Tewa, 1993; (co-editor) Language Ideologies, Practice and Theory, 1998; (editor) Regimes of Language: Ideologies, Polities, and Identities, 2000; and (co-author) Taitaduhaan: Western Mono Ways of Speaking (a CD-ROM), in press.
Una Canger is Associate Professor in the Department of American Indian Languages and Cultures, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, where she has been teaching since 1970. She earned her doctorate in linguistics at the University of California, Berkeley. She has conducted field studies among Mam speakers in Guatemala and Nahuatl speakers in a variety of communities in Mexico. Among her published works are articles on field methods, linguistic data, aspects of various Nahuatl dialects, and a volume entitled Five Studies Inspired by Nahuatl verbs in -oa. Her current research is on the Nahuatl dialect area called the "Western Periphery" in central and western Mexico.
Jonathan Amith (Ph.D., Yale University, 2000) is a social anthropologist who has conducted ethnohistorical research on central Guerrero, Mexico, and ethnographic and linguistic fieldwork in two Nahuatl-speaking villages of this region: Ameyaltepec and San Agustmn Oapan. His doctorate thesis is a spatial history that explores land tenure, indigenous migration, and commercial exchange in colonial central Guerrero. His publications include the editing of The Amate Tradition: Innovation and Dissent in Mexican Art (1995), as well as two articles (coauthored with Thomas Smith-Stark) on the Nahuatl of the Balsas River valley. He is presently working on a lexicon, grammar, and corpus of Nahuatl texts from the Balsas River Valley with a grant from the U.S. Department of Education.
David S. Rood received his AB (1963) from Cornell University and his MA (1965) and PhD (1969) from the University of California, Berkeley. He has been on the faculty of the University of Colorado since 1967 and was promoted to Professor in 1982. He has done summer teaching at various Native American teacher training institutes; in 1998-99, he was Visiting Faculty, University of Cologne (Germany). Since 1980, he has been Editor in Chief of the International Journal of American Linguistics. His research interests are in the description and history of selected Native American languages (Lakhota (Siouan) and Wichita (Caddoan)). He has had research support from NEH and NSF from 1972-1996, including support for the work detailed in the chapter in this volume; in 2000-2001, he will receive support for a multi-media Wichita dictionary from the VolkswagenStiftung, Hannover, Germany.
John E. Koontz received his BS Computer Science from Colorado State University in 1975, his MS in Computer Science from the University of Colorado in 1978, and his MA in Linguistics from the University of Colorado in 1982. He has been employed as a computer scientist by the National Institute for Standards and Technology since 1977. Koontz was introduced to the computer production of dictionaries by Robert Hsu and to the Siouan languages by Allan Taylor and David Rood. He subsequently became involved in the comparative investigation of the family and in a particular investigation of the Omaha-Ponca language, of which he is preparing a grammar. He was a participant the Comparative Siouan Workshop of 1984 and has been involved, as computer support, in the subsequent Comparative Siouan Dictionary Project from its inception.
Haruo Aoki was born in 1930 in Kunsan, Korea. He received his BA in English, Hiroshima University, Japan, in 1953, his MA in English from UCLA in 1958, and his PhD in Linguistics, University of California, Berkeley, in 1965. From 1964-91, he was a faculty member in the Oriental Languages Department (now the Department of East Asian Languages and Cultures) at the University of California, Berkeley. He has published Nez Perce Grammar (1970), Nez Perce Texts (1979), (with D. E. Walker) Nez Perce Oral Narratives (1989), and Nez Perce Dictionary (1994), all in the series University of California Publications in Linguistics. From 1999 to the present, he has been Consultant, Nez Perce Section, Language Preservation Program, Colville Confederated Tribes, Nespelem, WA.
Catherine A. Callaghan is the author of four dictionaries of Miwok languages, spoken in Central California. She received her Ph.D. from Berkeley under the direction of Mary R. Haas, and after a visiting professorship at the University of Hawaii and a post doctoral fellowship from the American Association of University Women, she obtained a permanent position with the Department of Linguistics at Ohio State University. She went into semi-retirement in 1991. She has received several National Science Foundation grants to pursue her research on Miwok and Costanoan languages, and she has authored numerous articles on these languages. She is currently revising her Ph.D. dissertation, Lake Miwok Grammar, so as to trace its development from Proto Miwok.
William Bright is Professor Emeritus of Linguistics and Anthropology at UCLA, as well as Professor Adjoint of Linguistics at the University of Colorado. He has been editor of Language, the journal of the Linguistic Society of America; of the International Encyclopedia of Linguistics; of the journal Language in Society; and most recently of the journal Written Language & Literacy. His interests include sociolinguistics, oral literature, grammatology, and onomastics.
Mary Clayton is an Associate Professor of Spanish and Portuguese at Indiana University, Bloomington. She teaches in the areas of Spanish phonetics and phonology, historical grammar and Latin American dialectology. She holds a B.A. degree in Latin and Spanish from the University of South Florida (1964), and M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in general linguistics from the University of Texas at Austin (1968 and 1974). In addition to lexicography, her research interests include phonological theory and language change and variation. After initial work Nahuatl, she turned her attention to Ayer ms. 1478, a trilingual Spanish-Latin-Nahuatl manuscript dictionary, for which she is preparing a Nahuatl alphabetical dictionary, a morphological dictionary, an edition and a monographic study. This work has been supported in part by a National Endowment for the Humanities Research Grant. She served a three-year term as an Associate Editor of Language in 1981- 1983. Among her publications are "The redundance of underlying morpheme-structure conditions" Language 52 (1976); "A Trilingual Spanish-Latin-Nahuatl manuscript dictionary sometimes attributed to Fray Bernardino de Sahagún" IJAL 55 (1989); "Three questions in Nahuatl morphology: 'wedge', 'helmet', 'plaster'," IJAL 65 (1999); and as second author with R. Joe Campbell, "Fray Bernardino de Sahagu/n's contribution to the lexicon of classical Nahuatl" in The Work of Bernardino de Sahagún: pioneer ethnographer of sixteenth-century Aztec Mexico.
R. Joe Campbell holds the Ph.D in Spanish Linguistics from the University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana (1966). He is retired from teaching Spanish linguistics and grammar, Nahuatl and SNOBOL programming language, most recently as Associate Professor, part-time, at Indiana University, Bloomington. In addition to Nahuatl, his research interests include the dialectology of Chicano Spanish and the Spanish of Jalisco, Mexico. He began his career of the study of Nahuatl through doing a summer of fieldwork in Tepoztlán, Morelos, Mexico, in 1962. He has continued to do fieldwork on Nahuatl in Hueyapan, Morelos; Pómaro, Michoacán; San Agustîn Oapan and Ameyaltepec, Guerrero; San Miguel Canoa, Puebla; and northern Puebla. In 1985 he published A Morphological Dictionary of Classical Nahuatl: A Morpheme Index to the Vocabulario en lengua mexicana y castellana of Fray Alonso de Molina. In 1989 he published a two volume introduction to Nahuatl grammar with Frances Karttunen: Foundation Course in Nahuatl Grammar. He taught at NEH Summer Institutes on Nahuatl at the University of Texas-Austin in the summers of 1989 and 1992, in addition to a summer course at the University of Chicago in 1996. His current work involves the compilation of a dictionary, with morphological analysis, of the vocabulary of Fray Bernardino de Sahagún's La historia de las cosas de Nueva España_ (commonly known as The Florentine Codex).