Diving into Glass: Reflections on the Blaschka’s 150-year-old Glass Menagerie

by Drew Harvell, author of A Sea of Glass: Searching for the Blaschka’s Fragile Legacy in an Ocean at Risk

Becalmed in the North Atlantic on a dark May evening in 1853, Leopold Blaschka witnessed an other-worldly event. Beneath the glassy surface of the sea, a small green light appeared. Then a second. And a third. “A hundred of these suns light up at a certain distance,” Leopold wrote. “As if they wanted to lure the enchanted observer into a realm of fairies.” He describes a flotilla of bioluminescent jellyfish, drifting midway across the Atlantic. Leopold, a glassworker from Dresden, sketched the shifting colors, tentacles, and ghostly lights. Then he began to imagine the jellyfish forms as glass. Over the next forty years, Leopold and his son, Rudolf, would go on to spin almost 10,000 glass sculptures of 700 unique marine organisms that today populate universities and museums around the world.

Twenty-seven years ago, as Cornell’s new Curator of Invertebrates, I travelled to the Corning Museum of Glass to visit Cornell University’s Blaschka Collection. I entered the cavernous warehouse, filled with rows of shelves and cardboard boxes, and opened a box. Inside was a glass model of the common octopus (Figure 1). Though it was covered in dust, with a gaping hole in the thin glass mantle and a missing eye, I was captivated by the lifelike texture and posture of the sculpture. Inside another box, I found a model of a bright red, orange, and white striped sea slug. At the bottom of another was an Apolemia uvaria jellyfish. The multi-belled, fifteen-inch-high glass masterpiece depicts an animal that trails 30-foot-long tentacles in the Mediterranean (Figure 2). I uncovered hundreds of models, representing a vibrant tree of life, spanning eight phyla and nineteen classes. It was an unprecedented record of marine biodiversity from the nineteenth century.

The siphonophore, Apolonia uvaria CREDIT: Kent Loeffler photo

As a Marine Scientist, I have spent the past three decades studying ocean biodiversity and health in locations like Mexico, Hawai’i, Indonesia, Myanmar and, domestically, in the Pacific Northwest. Many of the reefs and shores that I work on are declining. For instance in 2016, rising ocean temperatures caused deadly coral bleaching and mass mortality of corals worldwide, but notably near Australia, Fiji, and Hawai’i. Bleaching occurs when symbiotic algae, relied on by corals to photosynthesize and transfer energy, abandon their hosts to starve or succumb to disease. The health of colder-water animals are also impacted. In 2013, off the West Coast of the United States, twenty different species of starfish died catastrophically from a lethal virus outbreak that continues to this day. The once-common sunflower starfish, a keystone species, is now endangered and still declining. This is just the damage that we know about. I worry about deaths of ocean critters and the possibility of unseen extinctions due to climate change, pollution and overfishing. The ocean contains many organisms that are difficult to record and monitor. In the midst of unprecedented marine mortality and ocean change, I began to realize that the Blaschka Glass Collection provided my team with a time capsule of biodiversity common in the 1860s. Were our Blaschka animals still in today’s oceans?

Six years ago, with videographer David O. Brown, I began the search for Blaschka matches around the world. In Italy, we dove at the Porto Fino Marine Preserve and located seventeen living matches. One, was the mauve stinger jellyfish speckled in purple dots. Another jellyfish, the tiny by-the-wind-sailor, relied on a raised, iridescent membrane to sail the Mediterranean. In Indonesia, we found vibrantly colored nudibranchs and tiny octopus relatives. In Hawai’i, David and I filmed by night shape-shifting octopi, watching us from coral heads and crevices, reminiscent of the first sculpture that I uncovered in the Corning Museum of Glass. Those stories of our underwater searches are now a book, A Sea of Glass, focusing on the successes and the failures of our global exploration and detailing the fragile existence of those matches still living in our oceans today.

The common octopus, Octopus vulgaris. CREDIT: Gary Hodges photo.

Early in our quest, I dangled nervously on a tether below fifty feet of pitch-black water a mile off the coast of Hawai’i Island. We had come for the bioluminescent jellyfish of the night. We watched a ribbon-like comb jelly, a kaleidoscopic Blashka match, undulating against the current. Another point of light was drifting towards me in the current. A two-lobed jellyfish trolling tentacles that might match our Praya dubia glass sculpture. It was hunting with long, gossamer strands outstretched to capture plankton, but it spooked in our lights. Giant axons in the bell fired powerful contractile muscles that zipped up the tentacles and propelled the jellyfish away. Shivering in the cold and dark, it was time for us to surface. With a final look at the waters, we began to rise with our exhaled bubbles, nervous about our conservation efforts, and regretfully leaving this latest glimpse of the ever changing ocean.

A Sea of Glass won the National Outdoor Book Award, was a top Smithsonian Art-Science Book in 2016, and honorable mention Rachel Carson Award. Fragile Legacy is an award-winning film.


Drew Harvell is Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at Cornell University and Curator of the Blaschka Marine Invertebrate Collection. Her research on the sustainability of marine ecosystems has taken her from the reefs of Mexico, Indonesia, and Hawaii to the cold waters of the Pacific Northwest. She is a Fellow of the Ecological Society of America and the Atkinson Center for a Sustainable Future, a winner of the Society of American Naturalist Jasper Loftus-Hills Award, and a lead author of the oceans chapter in the recent U.S. Climate Change Assessment. She has published over 120 articles in journals such as ScienceNature, and Ecology and is coeditor of The Ecology and Evolution of Inducible Defenses.


New Clues in the Search for the Blaschka Animals

By Drew Harvell, author of A Sea of Glass: Searching for the Blaschkas’ Fragile Legacy in an Ocean at Risk

This guest post is published in observance of World Oceans Day, June 8th, a global day of celebration and collaboration to honor, help protect, and conserve the world’s oceans.


From the entrance of the historic Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, one can see across the Bay of Naples to the island of Capri. All that separates me from this timeless view and entry into the Stazione is an ancient gate crafted in metal of crabs and octopus.

Inside the archives, I examine Leopold Blaschka’s letter, in exacting cursive, of 4 February 1877. He specifies a list of 41 preserved marine animals to be sent to help him construct in glass scientifically accurate replicas of marine invertebrates. I reflect on this new evidence of his careful planning. He researched and then obtained names of the exact preserved animals he needed to perfect his glass masterpieces. It took two months from his penning of the letter until these animals reached his door. I may never know how he formed his list, but I can celebrate the outcome. Some of those 41 animals sent at his request, arenow spun in glass and housed in the collection I curate at Cornell University.

I am visiting the Stazione Zoologica to research these letters, explore the fate of our Blaschka matches, and talk about my recent book, A Sea of Glass. The book chronicles my search for the living animals and how they are faring in a changing ocean. On the list of animals sent at Leopold’s request is the curly tentacle octopus (Eledone moschata), one of our most prized models. In glass, it is an attentive octopus crouched in a comfortable octopus pose, tentacles coiled at the ready, as if waiting for a crab to pass. Also on the list is the crinoid (Comatula mediterranea), a delicate relative of starfish and still found deep in the waters of Naples Bay and studied even now by researchers at Anton Dohrn. Near the end of Blaschka’s list is the white-spotted octopus (Callistoctopus macropus), a close cousin and look-alike to the bright-spotted ornate octopus (Callistoctopus ornatus), I describe in A Sea of Glass from my night dive in Hawaii. Shown here are the swirling red tentacles portrayed in the watercolor drawn by Leopold before tackling the glass model.

With these lists of Blaschka subjects in hand, scientists at Stazione Zoologica will help in my quest to check up on the health of the Blaschka animals by looking over the coming year to see which can still be found alive in the Bay of Naples.

The curly tentacle octopus (Eledone moschata) in glass. Claire Smith, photo.
The Mediterranean crinoid (Antedon mediterranea) in glass. Corning Museum of Glass, photo.
The white-spotted otopus (Callistoctopus macropus), water color by Leopold Blaschka. Courtesy of Rakow Library, Corning Museum of Glass.

Drew Harvell is Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at Cornell University and Curator of the Blaschka Marine Invertebrate Collection. Her research on the sustainability of marine ecosystems has taken her from the reefs of Mexico, Indonesia, and Hawaii to the cold waters of the Pacific Northwest. She is a Fellow of the Ecological Society of America and the Atkinson Center for a Sustainable Future, a winner of the Society of American Naturalist Jasper Loftus-Hills Award, and a lead author of the oceans chapter in the recent U.S. Climate Change Assessment. She has published over 120 articles in journals such as ScienceNature, and Ecology and is coeditor of The Ecology and Evolution of Inducible Defenses.


UC Press Books in the News: A Sea of Glass

This post is part of a recurring series that highlights UC Press books of note that have been featured recently in the media. This post focuses on our recent title A Sea of Glass: Searching for the Blaschkas’ Fragile Legacy in an Ocean at Risk.

9780520285682_Harvell

The book received a mention in a recent New Scientist article about the Blaschka glass collection: ““If ever there was a time to compare the plentiful past with an ocean in jeopardy, that time would be now,” says author Drew Harvell, who was instrumental in bringing Cornell’s Blaschka collection out of storage and into the Corning Museum of Glass in New York state. “We hope to find out whether they are surviving in the sea as magnificently as they do in glass,” she says.”

A recent review in Library Journal said: “The author makes an eloquent plea for marine biodiversity conservation. ­VERDICT: General readers, as well as those who enjoyed J.E.N. ­Veron’s A Reef in Time: The Great Barrier Reef from Beginning to End and Richard ­Ellis’s The Empty Ocean, will appreciate this ­volume.”

Discover Magazine ran a profile of Drew Harvell, available online to magazine subscribers, as well as a beautiful slideshow of the Blaschka glass creatures.

The book was reviewed this week in Hakai Magazine. Julie Schwietert Collazo called the book “an SOS call for a change in human behavior.”

NPR’s Science Friday ran a piece on their blog about the Blaschka collection, mentioning the current exhibit at the Corning Museum of Glass as well as A Sea of Glass: “Today, the marine models are enduring examples of a successful union between science and art, and Harvell uses them as teaching aids at Cornell. For her, they’re a source of inspiration at a crucial time for ocean conservation. As she writes in A Sea of Glass, “My vision is that these masterpieces of glass art motivate wonder and appreciation for our ocean world.””

And to cap off the outstanding reception to A Sea of Glass, Eve M. Kahn mentioned the book in an article she wrote for the New York Times antiques column earlier this month.

 


Coral Reefs in the Age of Climate Change: Fragile as Glass

by Drew Harvell, author of A Sea of Glass: Searching for the Blaschkas’ Fragile Legacy in an Ocean at Risk

Harvell_8.1_Mediterranean coral
Dendrophyllia ramea, a stony cup coral in glass (Photo: Guido Mocofico)

Over 150 years ago, the father-son glassmaking team of Leopold and Rudolf Blaschka created a glass menagerie of over 800 marine invertebrate models, documenting life in oceans untouched by climate change and human impacts. They were captivated by sea slugs, octopus, squid, anemones, and even soft corals, and they spun their likeness into exquisite glass replicas. As described in A Sea of Glass, my quest to find what living representatives remain of the Blaschka’s subjects was surprisingly successful, even though their variety and numbers have dwindled since they were first captured in glass. Sadly, their losses are accelerating beyond expectation due to climate-related impacts such as ocean acidification and warming seas, particularly for coral reefs. The devastation this year is shocking. According to a new report in the journal Science, coral reefs around the globe have been devastated by the world’s largest bleaching event. Only 7 percent of all Great Barrier Reefs are unaffected, and in the northern GBR, 80 percent of reefs are severely affected. Over half the live coral has died on these severely affected reefs, once the most vibrant on the GBR. This means vast tracts of reef are no longer good habitat for all the extraordinary biodiversity and fisheries wealth that once lived there.

The loss of the corals that make these reefs is the big story, but it also translates into the loss of habitat for the beautiful invertebrates the Blaschkas so admired: countless sea anemones, nudibranchs, squid, and octopus are now homeless refugees. My colleague, Dr Terry Hughes, who directs the Australian Research Council Center of Coral Reef Excellence reports, “This dwarfs previous bleaching events by a long mark . . . the northern GBR won’t get back to what it was, certainly not in my lifetime.”

Tubipora hemprichi, the organ pipe coral in glass (Photo: Corning Museum of Glass)

Things are even worse in other places, like the tiny country of Kiribati where Dr Julia Baum of The University of Victoria estimates that 80 percent of the coral cover died. Those of us who study infectious disease know its not over yet; the remaining live, but severely stressed corals in both the GBR and Kiribati will still be susceptible to waves of lethal infectious disease yet to come.

Even before this disastrous year, coldwater corals that the Blaschkas once captured in glass, like the stunning precious red coral (Corallium rubrum) and the golden cup coral (Astroides calycularis) from the Mediterranean, have experienced multiple mass mortalities due to heat stress.

There is much that can be done to reverse the impacts of climate change; it is the grand challenge of our time, and our reward for success will be an ocean full of nature’s masterpieces. Otherwise, in fifty years it may be that all we’ll have left is our sea in glass.

Drew Harvell is Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at Cornell University and Curator of the Blaschka Marine Invertebrate Collection. Her research on the sustainability of marine ecosystems has taken her from the reefs of Mexico, Indonesia, and Hawaii to the cold waters of the Pacific Northwest. She is a Fellow of the Ecological Society of America and the Atkinson Center for a Sustainable Future, a winner of the Society of American Naturalist Jasper Loftus-Hills Award, and a lead author of the oceans chapter in the recent U.S. Climate Change Assessment. She has published over 120 articles in journals such as ScienceNature, and Ecology and is coeditor of The Ecology and Evolution of Inducible Defenses.

 


A Sea of Glass and the Blaschkas’ Fragile Legacy

What caught Drew Harvell’s eye first was a glass octopus. Inspired by the incredible glass marine sculptures of Leopold and Rudolf Blaschka, she soon set off to search for their living counterparts. In her new book A Sea of Glass, she tells the story of this journey of a lifetime while exploring unusual biology of these ancient animals and showing us that our ocean ecosystems—like the Blaschkas’ works of art—are as fragile as glass.

In honor of Earth Day, check out a slideshow of incredible Blaschka creations below, and learn more about Drew’s book here.

Additionally, click here to save 30% on new and bestselling science titles.

  • Common Octopus (Photo: Gary Hodges)
  • Sea Pansy (Photo: Gary Hodges)
  • From Left to Right: Siphonophores: Apolemia uvaria (Photo: Kent Loeffler) and Rosacea cymbiformis (Photo:Gray Hodges)
  • From Left to Right: mauve stinger (Photo: Drew Harvell), mauve stinger glass (Photo: Corning Museum of Glass), stinger watercolor (Photo: Corning Museum of Glass)
  • tentacle tubeworm (Photo: C. Smith)
  • From Left to Right: Doto Glass (Photo: C. Smith), Doto live (Photo: Reyn Yoshioka)
  • seadragon glass (Photo: Guido Mocafico), sea dragon watercolor (Photo: Corning Museum)
  • histioteuthis before (Photo: E. Brill), histioteuthis after (Photo: K. Loeffler)
  • common seastar in glass (Photo: Guido Mocafico)