Best of the Blog 2017

As 2017 draws to a close, we’ve compiled ten blog posts that resonated most with our readers over the past year. Popular blog themes closely mirrored current events, and the state of global political realities — immigration, inequality, fascism, and environmental issues; additionally, readers were taken by posts on critical thinking, “slow” cinema, indigenous and world poetry, and the secrets unearthed from an ancient metropolis.

Have a happy new year, and see you in 2018, the 125th year of UC Press’s founding!

Immigration historians from across the United States launched the website #ImmigrationSyllabus to help the public understand the historical roots of today’s immigration debates, inspiring us to follow suit with a list of UC Press suggestions to provide further context to the ongoing conversation. View the Immigration Syllabus: UC Press Edition.

Raj Patel & Jason W. Moore’s A History of the World in Seven Cheap Things focuses on seven areas that are the foundation of modern commerce: nature, money, work, care, food, energy, and lives. In this excerpt, find out how the cheapening of care has made the world safe for capitalism: #7CheapThings: Cheap Care

In Trump’s Transgender Crisis, Jack Halberstam, author of Trans*: A Quick and Quirky Account of Gender Variability, responds to Donald Trump’s tweeted policy change banning trans soldiers from the military to ask: at a time when the visibility and acceptance of transgender people has never been higher, why this ban, why now?

In today’s fast-paced political news cycle, terms like “fascism” and “populism” are often used, but not always clearly defined. This excerpt from Federico Finchelstein’s From Fascism to Populism in History, explores the origins of these ideologies, their significance, and the important distinctions between them: Fascism or Populism? Playing the “Democratic Game”

One of the earliest, largest, and most important cities in the ancient Americas, Teotihuacan is now a UNESCO World Heritage Site and the most visited archaeological site in Mexico. Take a Look at Teotihuacan to see some of the rare and awe-inspiring artifacts featured in the exhibition and accompanying catalogue Teotihuacan: City of Water, City of Fire.

 

Fifty years since its original publication, Jerome Rothenberg’s Technicians of the Sacred continues to inspire and educate readers with its ability to expand the possibilities of poetry throughout the world. Rothenberg recently visited the UC Press offices to discuss the book’s enduring power and read from the 50th anniversary edition.

 

 

Peter M. Nardi, sociologist and author of Critical Thinking: Tools for Evaluating Research, addressed the importance of looking beyond the “two-sides-of-the-coin” perspective when responding to complex issues in his post False Balance, Binary Discourse, and Critical Thinking.

Releasing in May 2018, Paul Schrader’s seminal text Transcendental Style in Film: Ozu, Bresson, Dreyer will be reissued with a substantial new introduction representing his experiences and ideas as a filmmaker that have evolved over time, giving the original work both new clarity and a contemporary lens. Hear Schrader discuss some of the techniques and attitudes of slow films in Transcendental Style in Film Revisited.

During the 2017 International Open Access Week, we interviewed Interim Director Erich van Rijn to survey the landscape of OA publishing at UC Press, discussing the progress and future of Luminos (our OA monograph program), and Collabra: Psychology and Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene (our two OA journals).

What is a case study, and how can case studies positively impact critical thinking and knowledge acquisition, as well as inform research in academia and training in professional practice? In the post The Case for Case StudiesCase Studies in the Environment Editor-in-Chief Wil Burns explains what case studies are, and how they can provide an important bridge to understanding important environmental issues.


IASPM-US and UC Press Announce Agreement to Publish the Journal of Popular Music Studies

The International Association for the Study of Popular Music, U.S. chapter (IASPM-US) and University of California Press are very pleased to announce that beginning January 1, 2018, the IASPM-US’s long-standing journal, Journal of Popular Music Studies, will be published by University of California Press.

At University of California Press, the Journal of Popular Music Studies will join a journals list that includes some of the leading titles in musicology, such as the Journal of the American Musicological Society, The Journal of Musicology, and Nineteenth-Century Music, as well as interdisciplinary offerings such as Representations and Boom California.

IASPM-US President Steve Waksman is excited about the new partnership: “University of California is a publisher that shares our priorities. We plan to continue publishing cutting-edge scholarship on popular music while bringing in more voices from outside academia proper, capturing the interdisciplinary energy of a field where music writers of various stripes—scholars, journalists, bloggers, discographers, cultural critics—are engaging in regular dialogue.”

Co-Editors of the journal, Diane Pecknold and Oliver Wang echo the sentiment: “We’re looking forward to working with UC Press to pull together exciting new issues that maximize the potential from this new partnership.”

David Famiano, Journals Publisher at University of California Press shares this enthusiasm: “UC Press is absolutely delighted to partner with IASPM-US and to work with such a passionate and dedicated team to continue the publishing legacy of such an important journal.”

About Journal of Popular Music Studies:
Journal of Popular Music Studies is one of the three top scholarly journals devoted to the study of popular music internationally. It was originally established in 1988 with the title, Tracking, under founding editor Steve Jones of University of Illinois, Chicago, and Reebee Garofalo of University of Massachusetts, Boston, who was then co-chair of IASPM-US. The change of name to Journal of Popular Music Studies took hold in 1993 and has remained in place ever since.

When it was founded in 1988, Tracking was self-published by IASPM-US. Its status as a self-published enterprise went unchanged until 2001 when the journal entered a short-lived agreement with Taylor and Francis. In 2003, the journal established a more long-standing arrangement with the Malden, MA-based Blackwell, which evolved into a deal with prominent academic publisher Wiley, now Blackwell’s parent company. Wiley will continue to publish the journal through the end of 2017 and all back issues will remain hosted on the Wiley web portal.

About University of California Press:
As one of the world’s most forward-thinking publishers, UC Press gives voice, reach, and impact to innovative research and exceptional scholarship. With a global circulation in over 80 countries, our journals span the humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences, with subject areas that include history, literature & criticism, film & media, music, religion, and sociology.

 


Luminos: A Brief History

At UC Press, open access—the free, immediate, unrestricted, online access to peer-reviewed research and scholarly work—is central to our mission. In celebration of 2017 International Open Access Week (October 23-29), we are highlighting open access publishing initiatives at UC Press, including our Collabra and Luminos publishing programs. This year’s OA Week theme “Open in order to . . . ” is an invitation to answer the question of what concrete benefits can be realized by making scholarly publications openly available. Follow the full blog series here. #OAWeek #OpenInOrderTo


Libraries: Join UC Press in transforming monograph publishing—become a Luminos Member Library today!

Keep up to date by subscribing to the Luminos eNewsletter

 


UC Press and Open Access: A Brief History

At UC Press, open access—the free, immediate, unrestricted, online access to peer-reviewed research and scholarly work—is central to our mission. In celebration of 2017 International Open Access Week (October 23-29), we are highlighting open access publishing initiatives at UC Press, including our Collabra and Luminos publishing programs. This year’s OA Week theme “Open in order to . . . ” is an invitation to answer the question of what concrete benefits can be realized by making scholarly publications openly available. Follow the full blog series here. #OAWeek #OpenInOrderTo


Libraries: Join UC Press in transforming monograph publishing—become a Luminos Member Library today!

Keep up to date with these publications by subscribing to their respective eNewsletters: Luminos, Collabra: Psychology, and Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene.


ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene was founded by BioOne in 2013 through a partnership with five research universities: Dartmouth, the Georgia Institute of Technology, the University of Colorado Boulder, the University of Michigan, and the University of Washington. Please visit our Founders page for the full history.


Open Access at UC Press: A Q&A with Interim Director Erich van Rijn

At UC Press, open access—the free, immediate, unrestricted, online access to peer-reviewed research and scholarly work—is central to our mission. In celebration of 2017 International Open Access Week (October 23-29), we are highlighting open access publishing initiatives at UC Press, including our Collabra and Luminos publishing programs. This year’s OA Week theme “Open in order to . . . ” is an invitation to answer the question of what concrete benefits can be realized by making scholarly publications openly available. Follow the full blog series here. #OAWeek #OpenInOrderTo

In our first post in the series, we sit down with Interim Director Erich van Rijn to survey the landscape of OA publishing at UC Press.


University of California Press’s Interim Director, Erich van Rijn

UC Press made a bold move into OA scholarly monograph publishing two years ago, in summer/fall 2015. How is Luminos progressing in 2017?

EVR: Luminos continues to experience growth. Thus far, we’ve published 40 titles in the program. We tend to count publications by fiscal year, and by that measure, Luminos is entering its third year of publication and every fiscal year has seen an increase in the numbers of titles published, with 14 titles released in the program’s first year and 20 in its second, and projections are for 25 titles to be released in this fiscal year.

We’re also pleased to see continued growth in the Luminos Member Library program, whereby libraries who support OA publishing contribute to the direct costs of publishing monographs in the humanities and social sciences, through annual member fees, so that both the benefits—unfettered global access to important research—and the costs of publishing are shared across stakeholders. We currently have 22 supporting libraries who have contributed $158,000 in funding that has been applied to the production costs of Luminos titles.

With print books, success can be measured in book sales, but how do you measure the success of free open access books?

EVR: One metric we track closely is usage. To date we’ve tallied 84,575+ book and chapter downloads for Luminos titles. That’s an average of well over 2,000 downloads per book. These are impressive numbers, especially when compared against the average sales figures for a traditional print monograph. And in the coming year, we are undertaking a partnership with KU Research, JSTOR, Michigan, UCL Press, and Cornell to evaluate Luminos usage data in order to improve reporting and our understanding of how scholars and other readers are using Luminos books.

How are readers finding Luminos titles? Do you have strategies to improve discoverability?

EVR: In addition to making Luminos titles discoverable at DOAB and available on our own platform, we’re hosting Luminos titles for download on Books at JSTOR and on OAPEN, where additional readers have the opportunity to find these books. We’ve been impressed with the activity we’ve seen for Luminos titles on these sites. Books at JSTOR, in particular, has been influential in bringing a larger audience to these titles—we first made titles available on Books at JSTOR in September 2016 and are now seeing 68% of title downloads coming from Books at JSTOR.

What do we have to look forward to in terms of future Luminos content?

EVR: We have a number of new academic publishing partners who have launched book series with Luminos and some of the first titles in these series will be published in the coming year. This spring will see the publication of inaugural books in the Global Korea series (published in partnership with University of California Berkeley’s Institute for Korean Studies) and in the Islamic Humanities series (published in partnership with the Institute for Islamic Humanities at Brown University). Jinsoo An’s Parameters of Disavowal will look at colonial representation in South Korean cinema, while Shenila Khoja-Moolji will examine the interplay of gender, race, religion and power in transnational contexts in Forging the Ideal Educated Girl. Also coming this spring is Eternal Dissident, in which David Meyers, who edits the UCLA Leve Series in Jewish History and Culture, looks at Leonard Beerman, one of the most controversial Reform rabbis of the twentieth century. We’re excited and pleased to be working with esteemed publishing partners in the Luminos program and look forward to bringing future publications in these and other series to Luminos readers over the coming years.

In addition to Luminos, UC Press also has an open access journal program called Collabra that currently publishes two journals, Collabra: Psychology and Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene. How has the Collabra program progressed in recent years?

EVR: UC Press first entered open access journal publishing in 2015 with the launch of a multidisciplinary mega-journal called Collabra. The plan for Collabra, even as a mega-journal, was to create a journal that puts the academic community first—in transparency and openness, in scientific and scholarly rigor, and in fair pricing and ethical business practices. Our journals program evolved and expanded in 2016 when Collabra transitioned its research focus to psychology as Collabra: Psychology, and when UC Press acquired Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene from BioOne—but our community-first values remain central to our open access program. Both Collabra: Psychology and Elementa have unique business models that share value with editors and reviewers, and give them the option to keep their earnings or pay them forward to the academic community; both journals also include APC waiver funds for authors who cannot pay the APC; and both journals are fully led by their respective academic communities, and are committed to transparency and open science.

How has UC Press worked to innovate and improve the landscape of open access journals publishing?

EVR: In addition to structuring our journals with high levels of integrity, both academically and in business practice, we are delighted to have partnered with the Coko Foundation to develop an open source journal management system—“xpub”. (eLife and Hindawi are additional partners.) Currently the focus is on the submission and review process, and journals, but this project will not be limited to pre-acceptance process, nor journals, in the longer term. Beyond technological innovation, we have also helped make more people accustomed to open peer review, at Collabra: Psychology, whereby review comments are published alongside accepted articles if the authors chose this option. Open peer review can mean many things in the current scholarly publishing landscape, but Collabra: Psychology’s version of it has been more successful and more adopted than we anticipated—fully 77% of article authors have opted for open peer review—so we are pleased to be incrementally changing norms in the service of more transparent science and publishing.

Does UC Press have plans to launch new open access journals in the Collabra program?

EVR: Yes, we are working on a number of OA journal projects, including one called Civic Sociology, which is related to an idea in sociology which is already gaining popularity, about promoting scholarship oriented toward more effective, ethical interventions into systemic social problems, globally, via a better understanding of local and regional particularities. Watch this space for more!


Libraries: Join UC Press in transforming monograph publishing—become a Luminos Member Library today!

Keep up to date with these publications by subscribing to their respective eNewsletters: Luminos, Collabra: Psychology, and Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene.


AAUP Panel Reviews University Press Open Access Projects

 

The recent annual conference of the Association of American University Presses (AAUP) featured a panel on open access monograph publishing. UC Press Interim Director Erich van Rijn spoke about the Luminos program and reports on the session below.

 


Open access monograph publishing has become a topic of much discussion within the scholarly publishing community, so it should come as no surprise that it was one among many topics covered during concurrent sessions at the 2017 annual meeting of the Association of American University Presses in Austin, Texas. This year, my contribution to the meeting included participating in a panel discussion on open access monograph publishing entitled, “Four Case Studies, Four Ways: Highlights from AAUP’s Review of OA Projects.” The focus of my presentation was UC Press’s Luminos publishing program, and our moderator, Hope LeGro, the Assistant Director at Georgetown University Press had specifically, asked me to focus on the unique model that Luminos utilizes to publish OA monographs cost effectively.  

 

Luminos’s unique hybrid model which includes funding from an author’s institution, library membership funding, unit sales of print-on-demand editions of books, and a subsidy from UC Press was of much interest to attendees. In fact, my fellow panelists and I presented to a capacity crowd, which perhaps provides some indication of the level of interest in open access publishing in the university press community. Luminos’s funding model has been held up as a model of how open access can work, and we are very proud to have pioneered it. However, not unpredictably, larger questions emerged during a lively Q&A from the audience about the extensibility of the Luminos model to other publishers. After all, as an increasing number of publishers compete for scarce library funds to help offset the costs of publishing monographs, how will libraries be able to choose among the various programs? Can the Luminos model scale, and if so, how? As the number of presses offering open access as a publishing option grows, libraries will eventually need to make difficult decisions about which they can help support and which they can’t.   

 

These are important questions with which we at the press and in the wider scholarly communications community must grapple as Luminos and other initiatives aimed at open access monograph publishing continue to evolve. In the meantime, we are very pleased to continue to publish some excellent new books through the program, and we look forward partnering with increasing numbers of authors and libraries to grow the program and watch it flourish as Luminos takes a seat at the table amongst other important efforts to create a sustainable path for the open access monograph of the future.

 

Interested in your institution becoming a Luminos Member Library? See luminosoa.org for details, or email us at luminos@ucpress.edu.

 

 


This Year’s One City One Book Selection Is Black against Empire

UC Press is proud to announce that San Francisco’s 13th Annual One City One Book selection is Black against Empire: The History and Politics of the Black Panther Party by Joshua Bloom and Waldo E. Martin Jr.

Black against Empire is the first comprehensive overview and analysis of the history and politics of the Black Panther Party.

Bloom and Martin analyze key political questions, such as why so many young black people across the country risked their lives for the revolution, why the party grew most rapidly during the height of repression, and why allies abandoned the party at its peak of influence.

Bold, engrossing, and richly detailed, the book cuts through the mythology and obfuscation, revealing the political dynamics that drove the explosive growth of this revolutionary movement and its disastrous unraveling.” — One City One Book Selection Committee

Black against Empire will be featured in all San Francisco libraries and at bookstores around the city — pick up your copy for some summer reading and get ready for the One City One Book program extravaganza this fall! Join book discussions, view themed exhibits, attend author talks and participate in many other citywide events in September and October. Head to the San Francisco Public Library‘s site for more details, and stay tuned for the One City One Book Exhibits and Events Guide.


Research Libraries, University Presses Oppose Trump’s Immigration Order

University of California Press stands in solidarity with the AAUP and the ARL.

This post is reprinted with the kind permission of the Association of American University Presses.

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January 30, 2017—President Trump’s recent executive order temporarily barring entry into the US by individuals from seven countries is contrary to the values held by libraries and presses, and the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) and the Association of American University Presses (AAUP) stand unequivocally opposed to this immigration ban.

The order blocks some members of our communities as well as students, researchers, authors, faculty, and their families from entering or returning to the United States if they are currently abroad or leave the country, even if they hold the required visas. The ban will diminish the valuable contributions made to our institutions and to society by individuals from the affected countries. This discriminatory order will deeply impact the ability of our communities to foster dialogue, promote diversity, enrich understanding, advance the progress of intellectual discovery, and ensure preservation of our cultural heritage.

The work we do—particularly the books we publish and collect—illuminates the past and sheds new light on current conversations; informed by this work we believe that the rationale for the ban both ignores history and places assumptions ahead of facts. More importantly, this decision will greatly harm some of the world’s most vulnerable populations. The United States should not turn its back on refugees who are fleeing their war-torn homes and have already endured long, extensive screening procedures in the relocation process.

Finally, while temporary, the ban will have a long-term chilling effect on free academic inquiry. This order sends a clear message to researchers, scholars, authors, and students that the United States is not an open and welcoming place in which to live and study, conduct research, write, and hold or attend conferences and symposia. The ban will disrupt and undermine international academic collaboration in the sciences, the humanities, technology, and global health.

ARL and AAUP have longstanding histories of and commitments to diversity, inclusion, equity, and social justice. As social institutions, research libraries, archives, and university presses strive to be welcoming havens for all members of our communities and work hard to be inclusive in our hiring, collections, books and publications, services, and environments. The immigration ban in its current form is antithetical to notions of intellectual freedom and free inquiry fundamental to the missions of libraries and presses. By serving as inclusive communities, research libraries, archives, and university presses have deeply benefited from the contributions of students, faculty, staff, and scholars of all backgrounds and citizenships.

ARL and AAUP support all members of their communities and all students, researchers, authors, and faculty who are impacted by this executive order. The two associations urge President Trump to rescind this order and urge Congress to intervene on behalf of those affected by the immigration ban.

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About the Association of American University Presses
The Association of American University Presses (AAUP) is an organization of over 140 international nonprofit scholarly publishers. Since 1937, AAUP advances the essential role of a global community of publishers whose mission is to ensure academic excellence and cultivate knowledge. The Association holds integrity, diversity, stewardship, and intellectual freedom as core values. AAUP members are active across many scholarly disciplines, including the humanities, arts, and sciences, publish significant regional and literary work, and are innovators in the world of digital publishing.

About the Association of Research Libraries
The Association of Research Libraries (ARL) is a nonprofit organization of 124 research libraries in the US and Canada. ARL’s mission is to influence the changing environment of scholarly communication and the public policies that affect research libraries and the diverse communities they serve. ARL pursues this mission by advancing the goals of its member research libraries, providing leadership in public and information policy to the scholarly and higher education communities, fostering the exchange of ideas and expertise, facilitating the emergence of new roles for research libraries, and shaping a future environment that leverages its interests with those of allied organizations. ARL is on the web at ARL.org.


Editor Spotlight: Christopher Johnson, Executive Editor for Psychology

Christopher.Johnson.Photo

For more than 120 years, UC Press has championed work that influences public discourse and challenges the status quo in multiple fields of study. It was with considerable excitement that we have decided to add psychology to our catalog—complementing our already strong presence in sociology, anthropology, history and other disciplines.

In this Q&A with Executive Editor Christopher Johnson, we learn about what brought him to publishing and his plans for the new psychology list.

Why did you become an acquisitions editor?

I spent the early years of my publishing career in sales and marketing. But like the kid with his nose pressed against the candy store window, I spent most of that time eagerly waiting for the moment when I could be the person to work directly with authors, helping shape ideas, and solving problems. Over twenty years later (and no longer a kid), it’s still a thrill to sit across a desk from a prospective author and ask the question: “How can I help you tell this story and reach your audience?”

What projects are you working on now to develop the Psychology list at UC Press?

Building a program from scratch is an exciting but somewhat daunting challenge. Fortunately, the response from psychologist around the country has been overwhelmingly positive. Though we are new to psychology, the UC Press brand is widely known and much respected.

I’ve been at the Press for one year and I’m happy that I have projects at all stages of development. For example:

  • My first book at UC Press is Seeing by noted cognitive psychologist Tom Cornsweet (Emeritus Professor at UC Irvine). The manuscript is undergoing final reviewing now and we hope to publish in late 2017.
  • My most recent signings include two innovative textbooks. The first is intended for the psychology of adjustment course by Robert Innes at Vanderbilt University and the second a highly applied book for the testing and measurement course by Lisa Hollis-Sawyer at Northeastern Illinois University.
  • I’m currently reviewing a number of proposals for new titles. It’s a wonderfully eclectic mix. From a companion reader to a behavioral statistics course, to a first person account of pregnancy and the first nine months of life by a developmental psychologist, to a much needed new text for the psychology of the self course, these projects under consideration reflect the broad scope of our new program.

You’re developing new textbooks and course books. Why is new content intended for use in courses important to you?

I’m very interested in acquiring a broad range of psychology books including works of popular science (a.k.a trade books), as well as more specialized works intended primarily for researchers. However, I am especially excited to hear from prospective authors interested in reaching audiences in undergraduate and graduate courses. The industry is undergoing dramatic changes and the big commercial publishers are de-emphasizing (or eliminating altogether) textbook offerings for upper division courses. I’m really proud that UC Press is committed to serving this increasingly under-served community of teachers and students.

Join Us 

Interested in publishing your work with Christopher and UC Press? Contact Christopher at cjohnson@ucpress.edu.

And learn more about the Higher Education Program.

HighCreatives_ads_rev22 Higher Education


UC Press’s Open Access Luminos Monographs Now Discoverable on Books at JSTOR

In October, JSTOR announced the inclusion of sixty-three open access monographs, including those from UC Press’s OA program Luminos, on their aggregated content platform, Books at JSTOR. In the following Q&A, Books at JSTOR Director Frank Smith talks about why this is an important development for disseminating the long-form research of faculty in the humanities and social sciences.

Sandy Brian Hager’s Public Debt, Inequality, and Power is now available for free download at Books at JSTOR

What is the role of JSTOR in the discovery process for students and researchers?

JSTOR is one of the most heavily used online resources at universities and colleges. Students and researchers know—or at least we think they know—that the journals and books presented on JSTOR have been carefully chosen by JSTOR staff for their high academic quality. A very high percentage of the searches for content on JSTOR are from students, faculty, and other researchers who actually start on JSTOR, as opposed to coming in from the library catalog or Google.

Further, librarians have told us that they’re unlikely to catalog OA books because they’re worried about the quality of some OA titles “in the wild,” and it is too much work for them to “opt-in” even OA books from respected publishers if they are not able to do so at scale. Books at JSTOR seems to be one good solution to those problems: JSTOR is a trusted source for content, and having OA titles delivered at greater scale gives librarians incentive to opt-in to cataloging those titles via MARC records and their web-scale discovery partners, so that OA book metadata is available to their patrons not just via search, but also through libraries’ own discovery systems.

Why did you decide to host open access books on JSTOR?

The open access books we are hosting come from publishers who we know employ high standards, including peer review, in their publishing decisions. So in one sense the open access books we are hosting are the same as books for which we sell licenses, which is to say we think they will be valuable for anyone doing academic research. A second reason to host open access books is to try to make JSTOR a more valuable resource for researchers who may not have university affiliations or may be in developing countries. (Through the generosity of many publishers, we also offer “read only” access to many journals for researchers without affiliations.) Third, OA books increase the amount of high quality content on JSTOR and we think thereby will make it a more valuable research platform.

What do you hope the future will hold for open access books on Books at JSTOR?

We hope of course that the books will be valuable to researchers. We also hope that by collecting data on the use of the books we can contribute in a meaningful way to discussions about the growth of open access publishing.

Also, the systems for books that are sold—publishing systems, library cataloging systems, and discovery systems—are ill suited to maximize the distribution of OA content. We’re facing a new version of trying to fit the square peg into the round hole. Books at JSTOR plays an important role then in being one of the first for-purchase content aggregators to incorporate OA books into our workflows and collections, which will ultimately help OA book publishing and readership as a whole.