Help Your Students Understand the Impact of the End of DACA

This post is part of our blog series Integrate Current Events Into Your Courses, which aims to provide lecture topics and corresponding course books that will help your students think critically about today’s conversations on social inequality.

Earlier this week, the Trump administration announced it would end the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program (DACA) in six months if Congress cannot find a different and more permanent solution. The statements Attorney General Jeff Sessions has used to describe many DACA recipients have been said to be misleading. And clarification about how DACA came about, who is affected, and what will happen next has been shared widely (click on Twitter hashtags #DACA #DREAMer to see the volume of commentary that’s been generated since earlier this week).

What has been sorely missed are the personal stories—those of people who were brought here as children to escape persecution or other hardships, have lived here in the United States peacefully, and are now poised to productively contribute to society. One such story is that of Jesus Contreras, a Houston-area paramedic who has been helping his community in the aftermath of Hurricane Harvey. And others, such as the DACA recipient who participated in a sit-down interview at Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg’s home, notes that, “[a]ll we’re asking for is a chance . . . I urge members of Congress to meet a DREAMer.”

Books That Integrate Current Events Into Your Courses

Below are recommended books you can assign to help students put a face to those affected by the end of DACA.

Lives in Limbo: Undocumented and Coming of Age in America by Roberto G. Gonzales, winner of the 2016 C. Wright Mills Award, Society for the Study of Social Problems

Roberto has written about how DACA beneficiaries contribute to society. He continues to serve as champion to immigrant children and has recently discussed how DACA has affected their mental health and well-being.

“It will stand as the definitive study of the undocumented coming of age in our midst. It is a book every teacher, every policymaker, indeed every concerned citizen should read and ponder.”—Marcelo M. Suárez-Orozco, coeditor of Latinos: Remaking America



Whose Child Am I?: Unaccompanied, Undocumented Children in U.S. Immigration Custody by Susan J. Terrio

Susan has written about what happens to undocumented children and families in the Trump era. She has also been interviewed regarding her thoughts on U.S. government’s treatment of children and who has access to the American dream.

“An impressive grasp of relevant history, law, policy and practice. Essential reading for anyone interested in one of the US’s most urgent contemporary human rights challenges.”–Jacqueline Bhabha, Harvard University



Everyday Illegal: When Policies Undermine Immigrant Families by Joanna Dreby, winner of the 2017 Distinguished Contribution to Research Award, Section for Latina/o Sociology, American Sociological Association

Joanna writes about how to tell children not to be afraid. She is committed to discussing and changing policies that undermine immigrant families.

“Eloquent and sharp… an important contribution to the literature on undocumented populations.”—Harvard Educational Review




Dreams and Nightmares: Immigration Policy, Youth, and Families by Marjorie S. Zatz and Nancy Rodriguez

Marjorie speaks frequently about how sweeping political decisions have enormous consequences to swaths of people living in the U.S.

“Highly valuable… this book is a combination of informative resources, rigorous social science research, and is well written to boot!”—Sociology and Social Welfare





Returned: Going and Coming in an Age of Deportation by Deborah Boehm

Deborah discusses the fate of returnees and deportees, or “lost citizens.” Her research has focused on migrants’ lives before and after federal custody but she now intends to do research on detention itself.

“Boehm challenges sterile depictions of deportations in the media and political debates. This urgent book is a must read.”—Cecilia Menjívar, author of Immigrant Families


See other books on immigration and read the Immigration Syllabus: UC Press Edition#ImmigrationSyllabus

Tell The Children Not To Be Afraid

By Joanna Dreby, author of Everyday Illegal: When Policies Undermine Immigrant Families

Over the past eight years of the Obama administration, there has been a record high number of deportations, more than under any other President historically. Researchers have recorded the impacts of such a focus on immigration enforcement, my own contribution documented in the book Everyday Illegal. Men, mostly from Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean have been the primary targets of enforcement actions. Yet men live in families; they have wives and girlfriends and children, many of whom are legal residents or U.S. citizens. Immigration enforcement has torn families apart.

When a parent is deported, a child experiences sudden economic hardship along with the emotional trauma of having the state take away a parent one day to the next. These are the immediate impacts. But what of the aftermath? In some cases spouses or children decide to return to their deported spouses’ country of origin, in many cases forfeiting their rights as U.S. citizens to live freely in this country. In other cases, families live through painful separations and the on-going financial and emotional trauma that entails. The deported face many difficulties in finding employment in countries of origin: they rarely can make enough money to support family members living in the United States.

The consequence of a system that increasingly criminalizes immigrants goes beyond that of those who are the target of enforcement. There are rippling effects. One of those unintended impacts is that the young children in the immigrant families I interviewed often reported that they did not feel comfortable with the word “immigrant.” At times they misused it, telling me that immigrants are people who are “illegal” or “not supposed to be here.” I heard the same thing from unauthorized kids, from kids whose parents were legal permanent residents, and from U.S. citizens; the legal status of children’s own family members mattered, but the rhetoric about immigrants impacted children in all types of families.

Under Donald Trump’s presidency, there are a lot of unknowns. How much of the Obama administration’s policies will remain intact? Will Trump make good on his promises to build a wall? Will he revoke DACA or will it simply expire? Will the deportations increase or stay the course? We do not yet know what changes to immigration policy the new administration will bring.

Yet for children I believe that much damage has already been done. Policies that criminalize immigrants and the rhetoric behind them instill fear in children. It is the fear that a loved one will be taken away or those children’s rights to be in the United States will be questioned because they live in a family of immigrants. We saw these policies under the Obama Administration. And yet Trump’s campaign planted even more seeds of fear in children. This past week, children had their fears legitimized in the form of the Presidency. I expect many of the experiences I documented in Everyday Illegal to become ever more common. But perhaps too young children will also become more bold in confronting those fears in days to come, like 6-year-old Sophie Cruz who told the audience of hundreds of thousands at the Women’s March on Washington, in Spanish and English: “Let us fight with love, faith, and courage so that our families will not be destroyed. I also want to tell the children not to be afraid because we are not alone.”

Joanna Dreby is Associate Professor of Sociology at the University at Albany, SUNY, and the author of Everyday Illegal and Divided by Borders.

Everyday Illegal

By Joanna Dreby, author of Everyday Illegal: When Policies Undermine Immigrant Families

This guest post is published in advance of the American Sociological Association conference in Chicago. Check back every day for new posts through the end of the conference on Tuesday, August 25th. 

In your introduction you state that “illegality becomes an urgent social problem with unexpected outcomes not only for immigrant families but for us all”. How does the “culture of fear” and illegality amongst immigrants you address have adverse effects upon American society as a whole? 

The public has the tendency to distance themselves from social problems, like unauthorized migration. For much of U.S. history, integrated members of our communities have been able to legalize their immigration status. So if you knew someone who was born in a different country but interacted with them regularly, you might assume they had legal permission to be here. And you were probably right. Today, as I describe in Everyday Illegal, this is no longer true. Unauthorized immigrants work in nearly all occupations, they study in schools and universities, and—perhaps most surprisingly of all—they live in families with U.S. citizens who are their children and spouses. No matter how long they have been here, nor their ties to local communities, they have been blocked from legalization.

Unauthorized migrants today are a part of the fabric of this country, yet they do not have the same rights under the law. History proves that any society that legally excludes members of its population creates vast inequalities that impact all members of a society. Much as no one was immune to the long-term effects of segregation laws, when we deny the foreign-born a chance to legalize, social inequalities increase. The lifestyles of many are made possible through the contributions of disenfranchised members, in this case unauthorized migrants. Our lives are inexorably linked.

The long-term adverse effects of illegality are yet to be seen. But we have already seen some of the short-term impacts the “culture of fear” has had on American society. It impacts citizen family members of the unauthorized, like the children I describe in the book who are fearful that their parents will be taken away from them. Even children of legal migrants described some of the same fears although their parents had done everything “right” according to our immigration laws. The culture of fear affects all foreign born families. More importantly, the children I met and interviewed—citizen, legal migrant and unauthorized children alike– associated immigration with illegality, explaining to me that immigrants are people who are not allowed to be here. As I suggest in Everyday Illegal, when we treat the foreign-born as possible criminals, it teaches children that they are people who are not allowed to be here. This undermines the foundational principles of this country, one that welcomed and was built by immigrants.

9780520283404How did your personal experience affect your research and conclusions? 

I initially wrote Everyday Illegal considering my personal experiences solely in the way it enhanced my access as an ethnographer. Ethnographers work best when they can relate well with those in their research projects, and can find enough points for connection to create meaningful relationships. I originally viewed my relationship with my ex-husband and the fact that I had two children who (sometimes) identified as Mexican-American as relevant in that it helped me connect with those I interviewed. There is something about taking children with you on an interview that puts parents at ease; it facilitates conversations about parenting when others see you acting as a parent yourself.

I drafted Everyday Illegal without mention of my personal story. But in the writing process I found myself increasingly reflective about how my own experiences shaped my interactions. At times I felt outraged at what I was learning. Why was this so upsetting? It was because I had lived with an unauthorized migrant at a time when the culture of fear did not exist. It was because I had worked with the immigrant community for years without hearing these types of stories. The game had changed over a very short period of time.

I began to consider in my analysis the minute ways the game had changed for families. I re-wrote Everyday Illegal to communicate this sense of change. My commitment to do so grew every time I spoke with a sympathetic individual who misunderstood features of immigration law and immigrant lives, like my students astounded that unauthorized migrants could not marry to get a green card, something that had been possible in the past. I included my own story in the revised manuscript to personalize the message that immigration policies impact all of us, sometimes in ways we least expect.

You conclude by saying “perhaps it is time to reframe immigrant illegality”. How best would illegality be reframed in America? What else must be accomplished in order to diminish the inequalities faced by immigrant families? 

We must do two things to reframe immigrant illegality. First, we must stop viewing the foreign-born as criminals. Our laws must stop punishing them as such. When I first worked as an immigrant advocate, we made the distinction clear: immigration violations were administrative violations not criminal acts. Therefore immigrants could expect the support of the police as long as they did not engaged in criminal acts. This is no longer true. Today our laws increasingly treat immigration violations as criminal ones. For example, Central American asylum seekers have been locked in detention centers on the border, rather than released as their administrative cases are processed. We must stop viewing those who arrive to this country as law-breakers. They are only law-breakers because the laws have changed. We must end this culture of criminality.

Second, we can diminish the inequalities faced by immigrant families by providing a pathway for legalization. Those unauthorized migrants who participate in our economy, who have children in our schools and live in our communities want to be here. However, not all do. If we provide a pathway to legalization, those who plan to stay here will legalize, and those who never intended to will go back. We must dismantle a legal system that creates these inequalities and replace it with one that allows for seamless transitions in legal status. This is not an impossible task. It is how it has worked for much of U.S. history. It is how it worked even 25 years ago. We can reverse the inequalities that immigrant families experience by providing legalization opportunities and dropping our newfound obsession with immigration enforcement.

Dreby, Joanna_headshotJoanna Dreby is Associate Professor of Sociology at the University at Albany, SUNY, and the author of Divided by Borders.