Celebrating 100 Years (and More) of Southern California Quarterly

By Merry Ovnick, editor of Southern California Quarterly and Professor of History at California State University, Northridge

2018 marks the 100th volume of Southern California Quarterly, the official publication of the Historical Society of Southern California published by UC Press. In celebration of this milestone anniversary, all articles in SCQ 100.1 will be freely available at scq.ucpress.edu through the end of February 2018.

Southern California Quarterly has been published since 1884. Here, a recent issue of Southern California Quarterly (Winter 2017) with some of its earlier named predecessors (issues for 1901, 1948, and 1962).

The latest issue of the Southern California Quarterly is numbered Volume 100, number 1—a number worth celebrating! But a more accurate figure of 134 years is even more impressive. The Historical Society of Southern California was founded in 1883. In 1884 the Society published its first journal, titled Historical Society of Southern California, Los Angeles. Under that title, it published an annual journal 1884–1887. The Society continued to produce an annual journal, renamed the Annual Publication of the Historical Society of Southern California, in 1888–1889 and 1905–1934, appending Los Angeles to the title for the 1891 and 1893–1896 issues and changing the volume numbering system. For the single year of 1890, the Society’s journal just appeared under the name Historical Society of Southern California. There is no record of an issue for 1892, which means that either one was not published that year or merely that no copies have survived. From 1897 to 1901, a partnership with another historical group was reflected in the long title Annual Publication of the Historical Society of Southern California and Pioneer Register, Los Angeles, slightly amended for 1902–1904 to Annual Publication of the Historical Society of Southern California and of the Pioneers of Los Angeles County. In the midst of the Great Depression, the Historical Society took the bold step of expanding from an annual to a quarterly publication, titled simply Quarterly Publication in 1935, a title qualified as The Quarterly: Historical Society of Southern California for the 1936–1949 issues. For 1949–1961 it came out under the title Historical Society of Southern California Quarterly.

Finally in 1962 we see the title still in use today: Southern California Quarterly. With the possible exception of 1892, the Historical Society of Southern California has published a journal from 1884 to the present—134 years and counting. Despite all the confusing name and volume-numbering changes, this long record of publication reflects the commitment of the Historical Society of Southern California to making available the historical record of and research on the history of California, the West, and, especially, the Southern California region available to readers and researchers.

Inside Vol. 100, No. 1

Fraud and the California State Census of 1852: Power and Demographic Distortion in Gold Rush California
Warren C. Wood

Dred Scott on the Pacific: African Americans, Citizenship, and Subjecthood in the North American West
Stacey L. Smith

Modjeska, Paderewski, and the California Landscape
Kenneth H. Marcus

Book Review: The Other California: Land, Identity, and Politics on the Mexican Borderlands by Verónica Castillo-Muñoz
Ana Elizabeth Rosas

Book Review: A Land Apart: The Southwest and the Nation in the Twentieth Century by Flannery Burke
Linda C. Noel

Book Review: South of Pico: African American Artists in Los Angeles in the 1960s and 1970s by Kellie Jones
Lisa Gail Collins

ACCESS OVER 100 YEARS OF SCQ CONTENT: When you become a subscriber to Southern California Quarterly, you get access to all current and archival content dating back to 1884. Click here to subscribe or recommend the journal to your institutional library.

Untold Histories of San Francisco’s Restaurant Landscape 

The latest issue of California History, guest edited by Leonard Schmieding (Georgetown University) and Shana Klein (Georgetown University), explores the surprisingly untold histories of San Francisco’s restaurant landscape in the twentieth century. The following is an excerpt from the guest editors’ introduction, which is freely available at ch.ucpress.edu, along with the rest of the issue, until February 21.

“This is how watermelons grow in California.” Cover of California History Vol. 94, No. 4.

Since the Gold Rush, in 1849, San Francisco has always been known as a food city. In the beginning, San Franciscans imported canned goods from all over the globe in order to feed the population of gold miners, and soon after, local agriculture demonstrated that farmers could grow anything—bigger and better, as they were proud to brag, than anywhere else in the United States. With the completion of the transcontinental railway system, San Francisco could export its Northern Californian abundance to the rest of the country and established its great reputation as a culinary paradise. While San Francisco foodways reached the Midwest, the South, and the East Coast, its immigrant populations changed these foodways. For example, Italians, who controlled the city’s farmers markets and dominated the local agriculture during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, exposed San Franciscans to a great variety of produce. Chinese played an important role in distributing the produce by buying large quantities at the markets and then carrying them up the steep hills of the city to sell them to residents who did not go down to the markets. Furthermore, immigrant chefs in hotels and restaurants started using seasonal produce for their dishes and coined the term San Francisco cuisine—with Austrian immigrant Victor Hirtzler, chef at the St. Francis Hotel, becoming most famous for his cookbook of California cuisine. A number of dishes like Crab Louie, Cioppino, and also various versions of Pacific abalone were thus made into San Francisco signature dishes.

One major component of San Francisco’s culinary signature could be found in the city’s bohemian culture, which in turn consisted of the desire to eat both cosmopolitan and affordable meals. In their quest for exotic and filling meals, bohemians like Clarence Edwords scoured the local landscape of restaurants and found them in French, Japanese, Chinese, German, Italian, and other ethnic eateries. In view of San Francisco’s reputation as a food city, as a home for bohemians, and as a cosmopolitan metropolis on the Pacific coast, the lack of food historical studies of the city’s restaurant landscape is surprising. This special issue therefore intends to shed more light on San Francisco’s German, Chinese, and Indian restaurants in the course of the twentieth century.

Inside the issue

San Francisco Cuisines: Global Flows in the Food City of the West
Leonard Schmieding, Shana Klein

Johnny Kan: The Untold Story of Chinatown’s Greatest Culinary Ambassador
April Chan

Chinese and Indian Restaurants in the San Francisco Bay Area since the 1960s
Laresh Jayasanker

German Restaurants in San Francisco in the Wake of World War I
Leonard Schmieding

Public History: Pacific Standard Time: LA/LA 
Stephanie Narrow

Book Review: Making Black Los Angeles: Class, Gender, and Community by Marne L. Campbell
Michael Slaughter

Book Review: Defiant Braceros: How Migrant Workers Fought for Racial, Sexual, and Political Freedom by Mireya Loza
Frank Barajas

CALL FOR PAPERS: California History, the premier journal of historical writing on California and the West, invites papers for review and possible publication. Click here for more information about submitting your article.

Must-Read Journals for #AHA18

The American Historical Association is convening in Washington, DC for its 132nd annual meeting from January 4-7, 2018. The theme for this year’s conference is “Race, Ethnicity, and Nationalism in Global Perspective.” UC Press’s history journals are contributing to the conversation by making a selection of content speaking to this theme available for free for a limited time. Please follow the links below and share your comments on social media using #AHA18.

Pacific Historical Review Special Issue:
Alternative Wests: Rethinking Manifest Destiny
Guest Edited by Andrew C. Isenberg

The mid-nineteenth century territorial growth of the United States was complex and contradictory. Not only did Mexico, Britain, and Native Americans contest U.S. territorial objectives; so, too, did many within the United States and in some cases American western settlers themselves. The notion of manifest destiny reflects few of these complexities. Manifest destiny was a partisan idea that emerged in a context of division and uncertainty intended to overawe opponents of expansion. Only in the early twentieth century, as the United States had consolidated its hold on the North American West and was extending its power into the Caribbean and Pacific, did historians begin to describe manifest destiny as something that it never was in the nineteenth century: a consensus. To a significant extent, historians continue to rely on the idea to explain U.S. expansion. This Special Issue argues for returning a sense of context and contingency to the understanding of mid-nineteenth-century U.S. expansion. Read the special issue.


Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences offers the following articles on the #AHA18 theme for you to read for free for a limited time:

Instruments of Science or Conquest: Neocolonialism and Modern American Astronomy
Leandra Swanner

Fellow Travelers and Traveling Fellows: The Intercontinental Shaping of Modern Mathematics in Mid-Twentieth Century Latin America
Michael J. Barany

Darwin and the Ethnologists: Liberal Racialism and the Geological Analogy
Suman Seth

Retouching the Past with Living Things: Indigenous Species, Tradition, and Biological Research in Republican China, 1918-1937
Lijing Jiang

Bred for the Race: Thoroughbred Breeding and Racial Science in the United States, 1900-1940
Brian Terrell

Visualizing ‘Race’ in the Eighteenth Century
Snait B. Missis

Master of the Master Gland: Choh Hao Li, the University of California, and Science, Migration, and Race
Benjamin C. Zulueta


Boom California invites you to read its series of articles on “Undocumented California.”

Undocumented Californians and the Future of the Golden State
Manuel Pastor

Regarding the Documents: Scanning the Mythology of ‘Documented’ California
Jason S. Sexton

California Dreaming? The Integration of Immigrants into American Society
Kevin R. Johnson

The Américas: A Novel of California Begun
David Kipen

On the Road to Opportunity: Racial Disparities in Obtaining an AB 60 Driver Licenses
Laura E. Enriquez, Daisy Vazquez Vera, and S. Karthick Ramakrishnan

California’s Opportunities for Undocumented Students: Are They Enough?
Tanya Golash-Boza and Zulema Valdez

Undocumented Emotional Intelligence: Learning from the Intellectual Investments of California’s Undergraduates
Ana Elizabeth Rosas

Lines and Fences: Writing and Rewriting the California Fence/Wall
Marcel Brousseau


Southern California Quarterly Special Virtual Issue:
Home Strategies: Class, Race, and Empowerment in 20th Century Los Angeles

The Southern California Quarterly, published continuously (under this and earlier titles) since 1884 by the Historical Society of Southern California, has touched repeatedly on the themes of housing development, discrimination, and empowerment. In this virtual issue, we present a sampling of its contributions on these themes. Read the virtual issue.



California History offers the following articles on the #AHA18 theme for you to read for free for a limited time:

Teaching Race in California History Beyond Domination and Diversity
Daniel Martinez HoSang

Victory Abroad, Disaster at Home: Environment, Race, and World War II Shipyard Production
Alistair W. Fortson

Language Education, Race, and the Remaking of American Citizenship in Los Angeles, 1900–1968
Zevi Gutfreund

But Why Glendale? A History of Armenian Immigration to Southern California
Daniel Fittante

Resisting Camelot: Race and Resistance to the San Fernando Valley Secession Movement
Jean-Paul R. deGuzman


The Public Historian Special Virtual Issue:
Monuments, Memory, Politics, and Our Publics

The Public Historian, the official journal of the National Council on Pubic History, shares a special virtual issue featuring dozen essays from the journal’s backlist, ranging across some twenty years, that illustrate the evolving historiography on the issue of monuments, memory, history, and heritage and broaden the discussion beyond the focus of the Civil War, Redemption, and resistance to the expansion of civil rights during the 1960s and 1970s.

Tune in: New Playlist for The Tide Was Always High and Peeks Inside the Book

Music and musicians from Latin America are inextricable from the development of Los Angeles as a modern musical city. This volume listens for the musical urbanism of Los Angeles through the ear of Latin America. It makes the argument that the musical life of this dispersed and dynamic metropolis is shaped by immigrant musicians and migrating, cross-border musical cultures that not only have determined LA’s “harmonies of scenery,” but have been active participants in the making of the city’s modern aesthetics and modern industries.—Josh Kun, in his introduction to The Tide Was Always High

Pacific Standard Time: LA/LA continues throughout Los Angeles, and for the unprecedented Getty-led collaboration, MacArthur Fellow and cultural historian Josh Kun curated a multi-part “musical exhibition” that explore the musical networks between Los Angeles and various Latin American communities and cultures. Tune in to his latest Musical Intervention (details at the bottom of the page), plus a new curated playlist.

To deepen the experience of these events, The Tide Was Always High: The Music of Latin America in Los Angeles accompanies the series with essays, interviews, and analysis from leading academics, artists, journalists on the iconic Latin American musicians who shaped Los Angeles—and America: Carmen Miranda, Esquivel, Yma Sumac, Agustín Lara, Pérez Prado, Cannonball Adderley, Eva Quintanar, Paulinho da Costa, Lalo Schifrin, Earth, Wind & Fire, Antonio Carlos Jobim, Ninón Sevilla, João Donato, Eddie Cano, Abraham Laboriel Sr, Elisabeth Waldo, David Axelrod, María Conesa, Arsenio Rodríguez, Justo Almario, Tito Rodríguez, Flora Purim, Banda Nueva Dinastía de Zoochila, Roy Ayers, Alex Acuña, Airto Moreira, Sergio Mendes, Luis Conte.

From Hollywood film sets to recording studios, from vaudeville theaters to Sunset Strip nightclubs, the book explores the deep connections between Los Angeles and Latin America, complete with lush imagery and historical photos. Take a peek inside at some of the vibrant vintage album covers:

From the emergence of Afro-Cuban jazz to the influence of Brazilian samba and bossa nova…
… to the cha cha cha rhythms of Cuban cha cha cha, Hollywood cha cha cha, rock and roll cha cha cha, and R&B cha cha cha…
…to the Hollywood scores arranged by the most influential, post-war, Latin American composer to the King of the Mambo…
… and the King of Space Age Pop…
…to ethnomusicology and everyone and sound in between, “The Tide Was Always High” shows how the music of Latin America has impacted Los Angeles and American culture for decades.

Musical Interventions
All events listed at tidewasalwayshigh.com

November 4, 2017: Guillermo Galindo’s Human Nature: Sonic Botany—The Huntington, Rose Hills Garden Court

Experimental composer, sonic architect, and performance artist Guillermo Galindo presents a work inspired by “Visual Voyages.”  Free; no reservations required.

UC Press is thrilled to publish three books in conjunction with PST: LA/LA. Learn more here.

Tyina Steptoe Wins the 2017 WHA W. Turrentine-Jackson Award

We’re pleased to announce that Tyina Steptoe, author of Houston Bound: Culture and Color in a Jim Crow City is the winner of the 2017 Western History Association W. Turrentine-Jackson Award for Best First Book on the History of the American West.

The W. Turrentine-Jackson Award, carrying a $1,000 stipend, is presented to a beginning professional historian for a first book on any aspect of the history of the American West. Presses may submit more than one book. Tyina Steptoe will be awarded this prize at the Western History Association’s annual conference in San Diego, CA.

“Tyina Steptoe pushes the historical and theoretical boundaries of Borderlands and Black Studies to produce a magnificent relational history of Blacks, Creoles, whites, and Mexicans in Houston.  The stories she uncovers remind us of the indelible historical and cultural links between these communities. Houston Bound will dramatically expand how we think about the history of race, politics, and popular culture in Houston and, more broadly, the confederate South.”
—Gaye Theresa Johnson, Associate Professor of Chicana/o Studies and Black Studies, University of California—Los Angeles.

Hear more about Houston Bound from Tyina Steptoe on this episode of Jacobin’s The Dig podcast.

Many congratulations to Prof. Steptoe!

Save 40% on New & Notable Western History Titles

The 2017 Western History Association convenes November 1-4 in San Diego, CA, and WHA members can save 40% on UC Press titles when they visit us at booth #28.

Get an early look at just some of the titles we’ll have on view by visiting our Western History Association landing page—and take advantage of the conference discount early. Browse new and forthcoming UC Press titles in the field of Western History, and save.

Transforming Shattered Grounds into New Beginnings

by Christina Zanfagna, author of Holy Hip Hop in the City of Angels

At UC Press, open access—the free, immediate, unrestricted, online access to peer-reviewed research and scholarly work—is central to our mission. In celebration of 2017 International Open Access Week (October 23-29), we are highlighting open access publishing initiatives at UC Press, including our Collabra and Luminos publishing programs. This year’s OA Week theme “Open in order to . . . ” is an invitation to answer the question of what concrete benefits can be realized by making scholarly publications openly available. Follow the full blog series here#OAWeek #OpenInOrderTo

The United States has witnessed an onslaught of catastrophic upheavals of both nature and culture in the second half of 2017—from the deadly Charlottesville, VA attack on protesters at a “Unite the Right” rally to the series of torrential hurricanes sweeping through the Gulf Coast and Caribbean to the mass shooting that killed 58 people at a concert in Las Vegas, CA. And now, as I write this, Northern California still smolders from deadly wildfires that have reduced whole neighborhoods to piles of ash and claimed more than forty lives.

How can we make sense of this level of loss and tragedy? Where can we find the imagination, strength, and beauty to transform these shattered grounds into new beginnings?

Folks in Southern California—an area that is no stranger to these kinds of disastrous environmental and social eruptions—were faced with these same questions in the 1990s after four major earthquakes rattled through the Southland. The Joshua Tree earthquake (M6.1), Landers earthquake (M7.3), and Big Bear (M6.5) earthquake, which all struck in 1992, and the Northridge earthquake of 1994 (M6.7), in addition to the mass flooding and firestorms that followed, caused over $43 billion of damage. 1992 also witnessed the rioting, looting, and arson that exploded in the wake of the Rodney King beating by five LAPD officers and their subsequent acquittal by a mainly white jury. Out of the ashes of these costly and calamitous events, Angelenos forged new modes of creativity and connection: the Bloods and the Crips brokered a historic gang truce in south L.A., community churches were erected in place of Western Surplus gun stores, and a subset of brown and black youth decided to share their struggles and aspirations through holy hip hop—sacred rhymes over hip hop beats that delivered wholeness, holiness, and hope.

These are the L.A. stories and soundings that permeate my book, Holy Hip Hop in the City in the Angels. They have a lot to teach us about the far-reaching effects of disaster as well as the power of creative practices of renewal. Sometimes music and art are the only way to make sense of such chaotic and widespread trauma. While the losses are real and must be meaningfully grieved, destruction also creates the conditions of possibility for transformations of all kinds. New ideas, expressions, and structures must emerge, even as they are necessarily grounded in the broken earth from which they spring forth. What artful spark will ignite the efforts to reimagine and rebuild in such turbulent times?

Christina Zanfagna is Associate Professor of Ethnomusicology and Ethnic Studies at Santa Clara University.

Holy Hip Hop in the City in the Angels is published in University of California Press’s Luminos open access book program. Click here to download a free digital copy of the book.

Sign up for the Luminos eNewsletter to learn more about future Luminos publications and other Luminos news.

World Architecture Day 2017: Climate Change Action


The theme for this year’s World Day of Architecture, which is is celebrated annually on the first Monday of October, is “Climate Change Action!” Noting that rapid urbanization and building developments are increasing our fuel energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, the International Union of Architects (UIA) calls upon architects and architecture organizations to mobilize efforts to respond to the Paris Climate Change Agreement initiatives and has set aside today to celebrate achievements and visions of architecture that is responsible, innovative, and enriching for communities. An early example of these efforts is Sacramento’s Bateson Building, considered the first large-scale building to embody what we now call sustainable architecture. The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians recently took a look at the history of the building:


In Sacramento, the capital of California, a new midtown government administration building, designated “Site 1-A” during design and construction from 1977 to 1981, was named at its opening ceremony for anthropologist and cyberneticist Gregory Bateson. It was commissioned following the narrow 1975 electoral victory of the thirty-six-year-old Governor Jerry Brown, and the building is acknowledged as “the first large-scale building to embody what we now call sustainable architecture.” It was referred to as “climate modulating” at the time, and the very word sustainable acquired early currency among its designers during construction. It was intended as a showcase for ecological design, integrated into what we might now describe as policies of “resilience,” demonstrating national leadership in an America newly attentive, since President Richard Nixon’s 1970 signing of the National Environmental Policy Act, to the nation-building potential of the environment. Yet the building’s place in history remains unclear. Why? Continue reading.



A Look at California Mexicana—An Upcoming Exhibition & Catalogue

Part of the Getty Foundation’s Pacific Standard Time: LA/LA initiative, the California Mexicana: Missions to Murals, 1820–1930 exhibition opens on October 15th at the Laguna Art Museum.

Artistic and cultural exchange between California and Mexico has flourished since the time when California was part of the United States of Mexico. The exhibition highlights this vital aspect of the state’s history through a panorama of works by artists on both sides of the border, from scenes of mission and rancho life through images of romantic Old California, to the emergence of a cross-border modern art scene.

Cover image is a detail of La Plaza de Toros: Sunday Morning in Monterey, 1874, by Charles Christian Nahl.

Edited by curator Katherine Manthore, the beautifully illustrated catalogue addresses two key areas of inquiry: how Mexico became California, and how the visual arts reflected the shifting identity that grew out of that transformation.

Grizzly Bear of California, c. 1854, Charles Christian Nahl, Watercolor over graphite sketch, 7 ½ x 11 inches, City of Monterey Art Collection, gift from Mrs. Augusta Nahl Allen
Translation from the Maya, 1940, Dorr Bothwell, Oil on Celotex, 23 x 19 inches, Laguna Art Museum Collection Museum purchase with funds provided through prior gift of Lois Outerbridge
Fruit of the Vine, 1926, Norman Rockwell, Oil on canvas, 31 x 27 inches, Collection of the Sun-Maid Growers of California; on long-term loan to Norman Rockwell Museum, Stockbridge, Massachusetts
San Gabriel Mission, Ferdinand Deppe, Oil on canvas, c. 1832, 27 x 37 inches, Laguna Art Museum Collection, Gift of Nancy Dustin Wall Moure

As evidenced by the selected images above, the catalogue includes diverse works by a wide array of artists including Frida Kahlo, Juan Correa, David Alfaro Siqueiros, José María Velasco, Tina Modotti, Edward Weston, Maxine Albro, Thomas Moran, unknown artists, and many others, making it both a pleasure and an adventure to read.

Variants and Errors in Old Editions of Island of the Blue Dolphins

By Sara L. Schwebel, editor of Island of the Blue Dolphins: The Complete Reader’s Edition

Island of the Blue Dolphins: The Complete Reader’s Edition

While preparing Island of the Blue Dolphins: The Complete Reader’s Edition, I was shocked to learn how significantly the text of individual copies of Scott O’Dell’s Newbery-winning novel differed. Island of the Blue Dolphins is not Sister Carrie, with its complicated publication history, or Walden, famous for its textual variants. It is a twentieth-century Newbery winner published with numerous printing but just three editions: the first (1960), a thirtieth anniversary edition (1990), and a fiftieth anniversary edition (2010). Given the availability of late twentieth-century computer software, I had thought the editions would be identical.

How wrong I was.

Houghton Mifflin first sold the paperback rights to Island of the Blue Dolphins in 1971, and this opened the floodgates to variants in U.S. editions. Dell retyped the first edition, and in doing so inserted a series of variants. The first printing of the first Dell paperback, for example, introduced 6 variants in punctuation, omitted one word (the pronoun “I,” in chapter 8), and made seven printing errors, ranging from a lower case “i” that is missing its dot to a lower case “m” that is only half printed.

In some but not all reprintings of this Dell paperback, errors were corrected. For example, the Laurel-Leaf Historical Fiction imprint published in 1978 corrects two missing periods and a missing comma, as well as the missing pronoun “I;” however, it inserts a different error (“though” for “thought,” in chapter 8). The 1987 Yearling paperback is identical to the 1971 Dell first printing with one exception: it corrects a missing open quotation mark in chapter 8. But bafflingly, the 1999 Newbery-Yearling imprint reverts to the original 1971 Dell paperback: no corrections are made at all. These variants, while slightly annoying, are largely insignificant. And this is where things stood until 1990.

Houghton Mifflin celebrated Island of the Blue Dolphins’ thirtieth birthday by issuing a gift edition of the book illustrated by Ted Lewin. This cloth edition made a series of welcome corrections to Houghton Mifflin’s first edition; most of these corrects are inconsequential (commas, subjunctive verbs, etc.), but three are interesting and substantive.

Continue reading “Variants and Errors in Old Editions of Island of the Blue Dolphins