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Friends-they are generous and cooperative with each other in ways that appear to defy standard evolutionary expectations, frequently sacrificing for one another without concern for past behaviors or future consequences. In this fascinating multidisciplinary study, Daniel J. Hruschka synthesizes an array of cross-cultural, experimental, and ethnographic data to understand the broad meaning of friendship, how it develops, how it interfaces with kinship and romantic relationships, and how it differs from place to place. Hruschka argues that friendship is a special form of reciprocal altruism based not on tit-for-tat accounting or forward-looking rationality, but rather on mutual goodwill that is built up along the way in human relationships.
List of Illustrations
List of Boxes
Introduction: The Adaptive Significance of Friendship
1. An Outline of Friendship
2. Friendships across Cultures
3. Friendship and Kinship
4. Sex, Romance, and Friendship
5. Friendship: Childhood to Adulthood
6. The Development of Friendships
7. Friendship, Culture, and Ecology
8. Playing with Friends
Appendix A: Ethnographic Data and Coding
Appendix B: Mathematical Models for Chapter 8
Appendix C: D-Statistics for Studies Cited
Daniel J. Hruschka is an Assistant Professor in the Arizona State University's School of Human Evolution and Social Change.
"Hruschka's integrative approach provides a robust, and accessible, view of the complexities of making, having, and being friends. This kind of inquiry is at the forefront of modern biocultural anthropology."—Agustin Fuentes, author of Evolution of Human Behavior
"Despite its importance to human happiness and well-being, friendship has long been a puzzle—largely a neglected one—for evolutionary scholars. Daniel Hruschka's book is a long overdue remedy to this situation. Through a deft combination of rigorous analysis and fine writing, Hruschka provides a thorough examination of friendship across the full range of human societies, past and present. His book will be an essential starting point for future work on this important topic."—Lee Cronk, author of That Complex Whole: Culture and the Evolution of Human Behavior
"With Friendship, Dan Hruschka uses evolutionary science to breathe new life into a topic that is vastly important and woefully misunderstood. Remarkable for its scope, insightfulness, and clarity, this book will change how we think about friendship for years to come."—Michael McCullough, author of Beyond Revenge: The Evolution of the Forgiveness Instinct