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This groundbreaking book presents a global perspective on the history of forced migration over three centuries and illuminates the centrality of these vast movements of people in the making of the modern world. Highly original essays from renowned international scholars trace the history of slaves, indentured servants, transported convicts, bonded soldiers, trafficked women, and coolie and Kanaka labor across the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic Oceans. They depict the cruelty of the captivity, torture, terror, and death involved in the shipping of human cargo over the waterways of the world, which continues unabated to this day. At the same time, these essays highlight the forms of resistance and cultural creativity that have emerged from this violent history. Together, the essays accomplish what no single author could provide: a truly global context for understanding the experience of men, women, and children forced into the violent and alienating experience of bonded labor in a strange new world. This pioneering volume also begins to chart a new role of the sea as a key site where history is made.
List of Maps
Marcus Rediker, Cassandra Pybus, and Emma Christopher
1. The Other Middle Passage: The African Slave Trade in the Indian Ocean
Edward A. Alpers
2. The East African Middle Passage: David Livingstone, the Zambesi Expedition, and Lake Nyassa, 1858–1866
3. The Iranun and Balangingi Slaving Voyage: Middle Passages in the Sulu Zone
4. The Voyage Out: Peter Kolb and VOC Voyages to the Cape
5. Bound for Botany Bay: John Martin’s Voyage to Australia
6. “The Slave Trade Is Merciful Compared to [This]”: Slave Traders, Convict Transportation, and the Abolitionists
7. Convict Passages in the Indian Ocean, c. 1790–1860
8. After Slavery: Forced Drafts of Irish and Chinese Labor in the American Civil War, or the Search for Liquid Labor
Scott Reynolds Nelson
9. La Trata Amarilla: The “Yellow Trade” and the Middle Passage, 1847–1884
10. “A Most Irregular Traffic”: The Oceanic Passages of the Melanesian Labor Trade
11. La Traite des Jaunes: Trafficking in Women and Children across the China Sea
Afterword: “All of It Is Now”
Kevin Bales and Zoe Trodd
Postscript: Gun-Slave Cycle
Marcus Rediker is Professor of History at the University of Pittsburgh and author of The Slave Ship: A Human History. Cassandra Pybus is Research Professor of History at the University of Sydney, Australia, and author of Epic Journeys of Freedom: Runaway Slaves of the American Revolution and Their Global Question for Liberty. Emma Christopher is an Australian Research Council Fellow at the University of Sydney, Australia, and author of Slave Ship Sailors and Their Captive Cargos, 1730-1807.
“A valuable read.”—Hauke Dorsch The Cyprus Review
"Extends the concept of the Middle Passage to encompass the expropriation of people across other maritime and inland routes. No previous book has highlighted the diversity and centrality of middle passages, voluntary and involuntary, to modern global history."—Kenneth Morgan, author of Slavery and the British Empire
"This volume extends the now well-established project of 'Atlantic World Studies' beyond its geographic and chronological frames to a genuinely global analysis of labour migration. It is a work of major importance that sparkles with new discoveries and insights."—Rick Halpern, co-editor of Empire and Others: British Encounters with Indigenous Peoples, 1600-1850