1. Alessandro Moreschi singing the beginning of Gounod's Ave Maria (Meditation on J.S. Bach's Prelude in C), with unidentified pianist. Recorded by the Gramophone and Typewriter Company at the Vatican Palace, April 11, 1904. Matrix no. 2187h, catalogue no. 54777. Remastered on Alessandro Moreschi: The Complete Recordings (Wadhurst, E. Sussex, England: Opal Records, 1984).
2. Nellie Melba singing the beginning of Gounod's Ave Maria, with Landon Ronald, piano, and Jan Kubelik, violin. Recorded the Gramophone and Typewriter Company in London, October 20, 1904. Matrix number 401c, catalogue no. 03033. Remastered on Nellie Melba (1861-1931): The Complete Gramophone Company Recordings, Vol. 1 (Naxos Historical, 2002).
3. Adelina Patti singing the beginning of Gounod's Ave Maria, with Landon Ronald, piano, and Marianne Eisler, violin. Recorded by the Gramophone and Typewriter Company, Craig-y-Nos Castle, Wales, December 1905; first published on International Record Collectors' Club (IRCC). Matrix number 547f. Remastered on The Complete Adelina Patti and Victor Maurel, 2 CDs (Marston 52011-2), CD 1. Patti performs the piece in F major instead of the composer's key of G.
4. Emma Eames singing the beginning of Gounod's Ave Maria, with violoncello obbligato by Josef Hollman. Originally recorded by Victor Records, February 1, 1906. Matrix number c 3076-1, catalogue no. 85098. Remastered on Emma Eames, The Complete Victor Recordings, 1905-11, 2 CDs (Romophone 1993), CD 1.
5. Eugenia Burzio singing the beginning of Gounod's Ave Maria, violin and piano accompanists unknown. Recorded for Columbia in Milan between 1912 and 1916. Matrix number 11052, catalogue no. D8076. Remastered on Eugenia Burzio, Verismo Soprano: Complete Recorded Operatic Repertoire, produced by Scott Kessler and Ward (Marston, 1999).
9. Birgit Nilsson and Jussi Boerling, excerpt from "In questa reggia" from Puccini, Turandot, recorded July 3-11, 1959 at the Rome Opera House, Rome Opera Orchestra and Chorus, Erich Leinsdorf, conductor. Remastered on RCA Victor Red Seal, distributed by BMG (2000).
10. Eugène De Creus, example of a messa di voce: excerpt from the final cadenza of "Loin de son amie" from Halévy, La juive, recorded September 26, 1913 by the French branch of The Gramophone Company Ltd. (previously The Gramophone and Typewriter Company, later His Master's Voice). Matrix number 2756ah, original issue number 4-32348. Studio orchestra and un-named conductor. Reissued on The Golden Age of Opera in France, Symposium Records, catalogue no. 1331 (East Barnet, Hertfordshire, England, 2005).
11. Marilyn Horne, example of a messa di voce: excerpt from the beginning of "Dove sei, amato bene" from Handel, Rodelinda, recorded October 13, 1967 in the Sofiensaal (Vienna) by Decca, originally published 1968 as an LP entitled "Bach and Handel Arias." Henry Lewis, conductor; "Vienna Cantata Orchestra"
12. Tito Schipa, example of a diminuendo: excerpt from "Una furtiva lagrima," from Donizetti's L'elisir d'amore, recorded on December 13, 1929 by His Master's Voice. Matrix no. CM 1335, HMV, catalogue no. DB3461 Remastered on Tito Schipa, 1889-1965 (Nimbus, 1990), NI 7813.
14. Patricia Barber, "Mourning Grace," composed by Patricia Barber on a poem by Maya Angelou, from Café Blue (Premonition Records, 1994). At the higher octave the ascending scale moves into suprafalsetto, also called fourth voice or whistle tone.
15. Emma Calvé singing Félicien David's "Charmant oiseau" from La perle du Brésil. Matrix numbers 2334, 2343, catalogue 0276. Recorded by Pathé, Hill-and-Dale recording, Paris 1920). Remastered on Emma Calvé, The Complete 1902 GT, 1920 Pathé, and "Mapleson Cylinder" Recordings (Marston, 1998), CD 1.
17. Quartetto Vocale Romano Gabrielli-Gentili singing Capocci's "Cor meum, et caro mea," a Communion text sung with organ accompaniment for a recording made in the United States in 1919 as part of the Lyric Record series of the Lyraphone Company.
18. Rosa Ponselle singing an excerpt from Rossini's "Bel raggio lusinghier" from Semiramide. Originally broadcast in Los Angeles on The General Motors Hour, May 24, 1936, orchestra conducted by Erno Rapee. Remastered on Rosa Ponselle on the Air, 1936-1937, vol. 2, CD 1 (Marston, 2000).
6. Vocal folds in slow motion, from UCDavis Health System, The Voice and Swallowing Center.
7. View of laryngeal cartilages from Acland's DVD Atlas of Human Anatomy by Robert D. Acland, 6 vols. (Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams Wilkins, 2004), vol. 4, "The Head and Neck, Part 1."
8. Strobe made by ENTs Dr. Daniel Martin and Dr. Jacquelynne Corey at the University of Chicago Medical Center, with tenor Harold Olivey singing in falsetto. Note that the vocal folds do not make full body contact.
13. Consonant M sung during an MRI. From Robert Caldwell and Joan Wall, The Singer's Voice: Complete Set, 5 DVDs (Redmond, WA: Caldwell Publishing, 1991-93), disc 3. Video from an MRI taken of a soprano who sings the letter M with a visibly lowered palate. The singer's mouth is closed so the air fails to escape from her mouth, instead exiting from her nose.
16. Beniamino Gigli, the golden-voiced tenor who reigned supreme at the Metropolitan in the 1920s, compares a free-floating glottis with a lowered, stiff one at a singing lesson for a German student. From the 1936 film Du bist mein Gluck. Filmed in 35mm, the picture was directed by Karl Heinz Martin, written by Lotte Neumann and Walter Wassermann, and produced by Bavarian Film, with sound mix by Tobis-Klangfilm.
This video can be viewed on YouTube at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fya2BCu7WWg.
19. Excerpt of Maria Callas singing Rossini's "Una voce poco fa" from Il barbiere di Siviglia the live Paris concert at the Palais Garnier (Théâtre National de l'Opéra), 19 December 1958, with the Orchestre et Choeurs du Théâtre National de l'Opéra, conducted by Georges Sebastian. Released on DVD as La Callas... toujours (INA on EMI Classics, 2001).
This video can be viewed on YouTube at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GLEFU3oeqtw.
20. Excerpt of Maria Callas singing Rossini's "Una voce poco fa" from Il barbiere di Siviglia the live Paris concert at the Palais Garnier (Théâtre National de l'Opéra), 19 December 1958, with the Orchestre et Choeurs du Théâtre National de l'Opéra, conducted by Georges Sebastian. Released on DVD as La Callas... toujours (INA on EMI Classics, 2001).